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Sensational investigation 2019! Attempt on Lenin in Bolshevik Russia. There were two killers.


    On August 30, 1918, in Moscow, on the territory of the plant that belonged to businessman L. Mikhelson before his nationalization by the Soviet government, Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin) was assassinated. Lenin was the founder of the Bolshevik party, its ideological leader, and after an armed coup in the fall of 1917 in the city of Petrograd (the revolutionary name of the city of St. Petersburg), when the Bolsheviks seized power, Lenin became the main political leader of the former Russian Empire. The story of the attempted assassination of the leader of the Russian proletariat raises many questions, most of which still lack clear answers. The most important of them - who shot, and who organized the crime. There have been numerous attempts to answer these two important questions. The researchers, relying on the available historical documents (protocols of interrogations of participants in the incident, memories of contemporaries of those events), had different opinions. As a result, formed three versions. First, a woman was shot at Lenin by political convictions, a lone terrorist Fanny Kaplan [1]. Second, the attempt was organized by the chairman of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTSIK) Jacob Sverdlov [2] with the aim of seizing power in the Land of the Soviets. Third, Lenin and his close associates planned this attempt in order to initiate a "bloody terror" against the internal political enemies of the Soviet state.

    The latest version could have a right to exist if the shots at Lenin were made by blank cartridges. In this case, the next day after the “attempt” in the mass media, the Bolsheviks would publish the text as follows: “The enemies of the Soviet Government committed a vile, insidious crime against the leader of the world proletariat, and only by luck did not hit the bullet in Lenin”. And already on the basis of this, they could organize terror of any scale and any “coloring”. However, the shots were fired with live ammunition, and the leader of the revolution was seriously injured, and he could have died. Would Lenin agree to such a deadly staging, organized by his colleagues? The answer is obvious, and therefore the third version is definitely not consistent.

    At the end of August 2018, the Presidential Library named after B.N. Yeltsin (Moscow) has published a small amount of new information about the attempted assassination of Lenin [12]. The reason for the appearance of these materials is quite natural. On August 30, 2018, it was exactly 100 years since the day when shots were sounded in the twilight on the territory of the Michelson plant, and it was necessary to somehow react to this event. Of course, the published information is of great interest. On the basis of its comprehensive analysis, the author obtained unexpected results that, to the already known facts about this dramatic event, allow to clarify, supplement, and in some ways even refute certain circumstances of the attempt on Lenin.

Moscow, Friday, August 30th. Morning day Evening.

    At about 11 o'clock in the morning, an emergency message arrived from the city of Petrograd in the Kremlin, which indicated that an assassination attempt had been made there on the chairman of the Petrograd Emergency Commission M. S. Uritsky [3], as a result of which he was killed. It was reported that the murder was committed by a member of the Popular Socialist Party, Leonid Kannegiser [4]; the law enforcement agencies of the city found out the motives of his actions. Lenin immediately sent there to help the Petrograd investigators of the chairman of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission (VChK) F.E. Dzerzhinsky [5] to conduct a thorough investigation of all the circumstances of the murder under his leadership. Then, during the day, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin worked with various state documents [6], [7], and in the evening he had to speak at propaganda rallies before the working people of two enterprises in the city of Moscow.

    Before leaving for a meeting with the Moscow proletariat, Lenin had dinner at 5 pm, while his sister M. I. Ulyanova was present. She, in connection with the assassination of Uritsky, appealed to her brother with a request to cancel the trip to the planned meetings. Lenin ignored her appeal [6], [7]. Immediately after the end of the dinner, the leader of the proletarian revolution, on one of the Kremlin cars, unaccompanied by guards, went to make speeches before the working people. Lenin and his personal chauffeur S. Gil were in the car [8]. As a rule, these speeches by the leaders of the Bolshevik Party began at six o'clock in the evening [50]. The first rally was to be held on the former Hlebnoye Stock Exchange at 6 pm, the second - at the Michelson plant at 7 pm. Lenin arrived at the Michelson factory at about seven o'clock in the evening [6], [7]. This is a very important circumstance, because at 18 hours 26 minutes the sun went down and dusk set in.

Calendar for 1918 with the indication of the time of sunrise and sunset and the length of the day (Moscow time) [9].

Twilight is the time interval during which the Sun is below the horizon of the Earth, but there is natural light in the sky, which is provided by the reflection of sunlight from the upper layers of the atmosphere and its luminescent radiation caused by ionizing solar radiation. Twilight gradually passes into the night, while their duration depends on the season, weather conditions and geographical location of the area. Clouds and precipitation in the form of rain or snow significantly reduce their duration. Unfortunately, there is no official information about the weather in Moscow on August 30, 1918 [10]. However, despite this, you can determine the meteorological conditions of the evening of the assassination.

    After the shots at Lenin, near the production area of ​​the Michelson plant, a woman was detained, holding a briefcase in one hand and a rain umbrella in the other hand [11] [12]. The presence of her umbrella indicates that the sky over Moscow was closed by continuous clouds in the form of rain clouds, which did not exclude the possibility of a sudden outbreak of rain. It is for this reason that the woman had an umbrella. Naturally due to the gloomy weather it was getting dark very quickly.

  The plant was located at Third Shchipkovsky Lane [6], [7]. Until 1916, it belonged to the English businessman Hopper, who then sold it to the millionaire Michelson and began to name the plant by the name of the new owner.

The location of the Hopper plant on the map of Moscow, 1915 (later it was the Michelson plant) [13].

   At present, due to numerous restructurings of the capital of the Third Shchipkovsky Lane, there is no factory where the attempt on Lenin occurred, in September 1922 received a new name “Plant named after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin” (“ZVI”). On the place where the leader of the proletariat was shot, on November 7, 1922, a memorial stone of polished red granite was erected. He is today in the park, located near the street Pavlovskaya. For guests of the city of Moscow on this place is organized tour.

Memorial stone at the scene of the attempt (photo of the twentieth century) [21].


        At about 19 o'clock the car of Lenin stopped not far from the entrance-exit to the building of the grenade shop, in which the leader’s speech was to take place. The workshop had this name in connection with the production in it of military grenades for the army. Almost immediately after the arrival of Lenin, a rally began [27].

Crime scene (photo from the investigation file) [12].

       From the testimony of the driver S. Gil it follows that during the rally he was in the car, and Lenin’s speech lasted about an hour, that is, it ended at about 20 pm. Lenin left the building accompanied by the working masses in the amount of up to 50 people and at a distance of three steps from the rear left side of the car was stopped by a woman who asked him a question [14]. This distance can be determined. The height of the leader of the proletariat was 165 centimeters [15], the step length corresponding to his growth was 0.685 meters [16]. Consequently, when Lenin answered the woman’s question, the distance of the proletarian leader in three steps to the car was 2.055 meters. During the dialogue between the participants of this conversation shots were heard. Lenin slowly began to fall in the direction of the right side of the body, falling forward. Panic broke out among those present. The driver, S. Gil, with a weapon in his hand, jumped out of the car and ran to the leader of the revolution. Lenin's body was located on the surface of the earth in the “on the chest” position; he was alive and conscious. Then, a woman ran up to the chauffeur, who said that she was a medical assistant, and later - two men [14]. They raised Lenin and placed him in the back seat of the car. After assassination of the leader of the proletariat, ten to fifteen minutes had passed to assist. After that, the driver drove along Third Shchipkovsky Lane to the intersection with Pavlovskaya Street, where, turning right in the direction of Bolshaya Serpukhovskaya Street, he headed for the Kremlin [13]. Currently, the distance from the crime scene to the Kremlin is 7.7 kilometers [17]; The distance over the length of a small. However, the time to overcome it in 1918 can be determined, given the following factor. The roads in the city of Moscow were mostly paved with stone, and the car experienced significant shaking (shaking) when driving on them. This is confirmed by the testimony of people accompanying the wounded Lenin to the Kremlin [36].

Moscow city. One of the many roads paved with stone. 1922 [49].

Newsreel. The movement of the car on the road, built of cobblestones [61].

Therefore, chauffeur S. Gil was forced to go with utmost care not to injure bleeding Lenin, which determined the speed of movement, which hardly exceeded 40 - 45 kilometers per hour. Based on this, the simplest calculation is that the distance of 7.7 kilometers was covered in 19.3 - 17.11 minutes, respectively, and on the basis of this it can be concluded that Lenin was taken to the Kremlin at 20 hours and 30 minutes. Wounded on his own, but supported by the persons accompanying him, he reached his Kremlin apartment. A certain amount of time was also spent on this. About nine o'clock in the evening, the victim was already examined by the people's commissar-doctor A. Vinokurov, who made the first conclusion about his bullet wounds [12].
    In this way, the weather conditions and the time interval of the events of that tragic day after 5 pm and until 9 pm are established. The shots at the Michelson factory sounded at eight o'clock in the evening. This is indicated, firstly, by the testimony of the detained Fanny Kaplan, who was subsequently accused of assassinating Lenin, - “I arrived at the rally around eight o'clock” [18], secondly, the fact that Lenin’s speech, which began at 19 and which lasted about an hour, also ended at about eight o'clock in the evening [14], [27].

Wounded Lenin.

    A description of the wounds of the leader of the proletariat of Russia and information about his state of health during the recovery period are contained in official bulletins No. 1 through No. 36, which were published daily in the mass media [12]. On August 30, 1918, at 11 pm bulletin No. 1 was published. The following facts were reported in it. Lenin received two "blind" gunshot wounds, that is, both bullets remained in the leader's body. “One bullet entered under the left shoulder blade, went into the chest cavity, injured the upper lobe of the lung, caused bleeding in the pleura and was stuck in the right side of the neck above the right clavicle. Another bullet penetrated the left shoulder, crushed the bone and stuck under the skin of the left shoulder region. There are on the face of the phenomenon of internal hemorrhage "[12]. September 1, 1918, bulletin No. 7 was published. It states that after examining Lenin at seven o'clock in the evening he was scheduled for an x-ray study of injuries [12]. On September 2, 1918, at 9.30 am, bulletin No. 9 publishes the results of an X-ray examination: “A broken-in comminuted fracture of the left humerus on the border of the middle and upper third. Breaking the inner part of the scapula. One bullet is in the soft tissues of the left shoulder girdle, and the other in the soft parts of the right half of the neck. Hemorrhage into the cavity of the left pleura "[12].

Radiograph of the upper chest and neck of Lenin [19]. (1 - broken humerus; 2 - bullet stuck in the shoulder; 3 - bullet stuck in the neck)

Later, on September 12, 1918 at eight o'clock in the evening, bulletin No. 36 reported: “... a bandage with a stretch was applied to the arm. ... The regular bulletin is no longer issued. " On September 18, 1918, at 20 o'clock, a message was published: “... The dressing is well tolerated. The position of the bullets under the skin and the complete absence of inflammatory reactions make it possible to postpone their removal until the bandage is removed. ” However, in 1918, the bullets were not extracted. Why? Answer. First, they did not disturb Lenin then. Secondly, the leader of the revolution sought to return to active political activity as quickly as possible; he categorically refused the operation, and the Kremlin doctors, naturally, did not dare to insist on it. But four years later, the leader of the Soviet state had serious health problems, in particular, there were severe headaches and even short-term loss of consciousness. The Government of the Country of the Soviets invited well-known professors of medicine from Germany. After examining Lenin, the doctors recommended performing an operation to remove both bullets. On April 23, 1922, one bullet was removed.

The bullet removed from the body of Lenin on April 23, 1922 [20].

The second bullet was removed from the body of Lenin after his death in 1924, since her presence prevented the embalming procedure. What bullet was taken in 1922? It is safe to say that it was removed from Lenin’s shoulder and there is a basis for this conclusion. The bullet was in soft tissues not deep under the skin of the upper part of the shoulder, and this was a relatively simple and safe surgery. But removing a bullet from the neck posed a potential threat to Lenin's life, because in the place where it was located, according to the anatomical atlas of the human body, there is a large concentration of blood vessels, including those supplying blood to the brain. When trying to remove a bullet from the neck, there was a high probability of serious complications that could even cause the death of the leader of the proletariat. For this reason, the Soviet surgeons decided not to risk it and did not remove it.

   There is an assumption that the bullets that hit Lenin were poisoned by curare poison. It is a poison of plant origin, and it is still used by Indians in South America to hunt birds and wild animals [22]. According to historical chronicles, arrows poisoned with poison were used against man during military conflicts between the tribes of this continent. According to its consistency, it is a viscous liquid, which has a dark brown color and is similar in its aggregative state to fresh natural honey. A small amount of poison is applied to the tip of a small arrow, which is placed in a tube made by a special technology from a certain type of plant during a hunt. A deadly arrow is sent to the target as a result of a strong and sharp exhalation into the tube.

Native American on the hunt (modern photography) [22].

When representatives of the fauna or humans enter the body, poison curare causes muscular paralysis and the living organism becomes completely immobilized for a few seconds, and then death occurs due to respiratory failure. Using the information about the effect of the poison, let us analyze the physical condition of Lenin after the assassination. At the production site of the Michelson plant, the injured leader of the revolution had no movement paralysis or respiratory function syndromes. Lenin independently reached the apartment in the Kremlin [14]. In the published bulletins No. 2, No. 3, No. 4, No. 5 of August 31, 1918, the doctors stated that the wounded person had normal body temperature and full mobility [12]. No further manifestation of the action of curare poison or any other poisonous substance was also observed in the future, up to the complete recovery of Lenin (bulletin No. 6 to No. 36) [12]. We give another argument, proving that the bullets were not poisoned. During the attempt on Lenin, a woman was wounded in her left hand, who stopped the leader of the proletariat and asked him a question. After the gunshot wound she received, she was conscious and capable [23], [24], [25]. She was taken to a hospital located on Pavlovskaya Street. Neither then, nor later did the symptoms of poisoning in the wounded woman were recorded. She was able to testify during the investigation into the circumstances of the attempt directly in the investigative bodies of the Cheka of the Moscow city [26].
    Based on the above, it is clear that the version of poisoned bullets is not consistent. This is a myth created by the Bolsheviks with a propaganda goal. The damage to the bullets extracted from Lenin’s body in the form of cruciform incisions on their outer shell and other traces is explained by their deformation when colliding with hard bone tissue (one bullet crushed the humerus, the other fractured the upper part of the left scapula).

Assassination attempt.

The weapon was found on the territory of the Michelson plant by a member of the Bolshevik Party A.V. Kuznetsov, who attended the rally and witnessed the assassination. The next day, August 31, 1918, he appeared at the Zamoskvoretsky Military Commissariat and wrote a statement about it [28]. He was immediately sent to the Cheka. It is very strange, but he appeared there only on September 2, 1918, after when in the newspaper "Izvestia TS.I.K. Soviets R.S.K.D. ”dated September 1, an appeal was issued to assist the investigation in the search for weapons of crime. In these investigative bodies, the witness wrote a second statement about the weapons found [29].
    In both statements, as well as in the protocol of his interrogation [30], the following was noted: the Browning pistol was the weapon of the crime. For unknown reasons, Soviet investigators did not establish its specific model. The author of this publication, 100 years after the attempt on Lenin, will help them in this.

Photo number 1 [31].

Photo number 2 [32].

Photo number 1 shows a pistol found at the scene of the assassination and which became material evidence in the investigation. Photo No. 2 shows the Browning pistol, model 1900 (FN - Browning M1900). Comparative visual analysis of photographs fully proves the identity of these firearms. And another interesting fact. The image in the form of a reduced copy of a pistol and a monogram or a monogram of two letters “F” and “N” was applied on the cheeks of the Browning handle until 1905 [54]. It was the hallmark of the arms manufacturer of the Belgian company Fabrique Nationale d’Armes de Guerre (abbreviated as FN). Consequently, the pistol in photo No. 1 with this logo was made between 1900 and 1904 inclusive, which means that during the attempt on Lenin in 1918, the weapon had a solid “age”, that is, its service life ranged from 14 under 18 years old.
    The witness to the incident, Kuznetsov, said that he had heard three shots and his words are confirmed by the fact that there were four rounds of ammunition that had been found in the cage of the pistol he found [30]. The capacity of the Browning pistol holder, Model 1900, was seven rounds, the caliber of which was 7.65 millimeters, and the length of the cartridge case was 17 millimeters. Pay attention to the photo number 1, in which, in addition to the four unused cartridges, there are four bullet cases without bullets. These sleeves were found on September 2, 1918, during the inspection of the crime scene during the dramatization of the incident.

Photo № 3. Dramatization of the crime [12], [33], [34].

In photo 3, the numbers indicate: 1 - a man in the position of a woman who stopped Lenin and addressed him with a question; 2 - a man who is in the position of Lenin during shots; 3 - a person who is in the position of shooting at the leader of the proletariat. In the car, with a gun in his right hand, this is chauffeur S. Gil, a witness of that tragic event. The location of the characters was re-created based on the testimony of the protesters. 4, 5, 6, 7 - the provisions of the cartridges found at the crime scene.
    The question arises, how could there be eight rounds in the Browning pistol, if the capacity of its holder was designed only for seven rounds? Practically this is possible, and can be implemented as follows [35]. A full clip is inserted into the gun, the weapon is removed from the safety mechanism and the lock is distorted. One cartridge is automatically sent to the chamber of the gun barrel. Then, removing the clip, it is equipped with a new cartridge, after which the clip is inserted into the gun again. Thus, the weapon will be equipped with a clip of seven rounds and one cartridge that is already in the barrel. As a result, in the gun eight warheads. However, in this case, the insufficiently reliable safety mechanism did not ensure complete safety of the shooter from an unauthorized shot when carrying a weapon with an eighth cartridge in the barrel [55]. It was this circumstance that posed a great danger to the murderer, because any careless handling of a pistol or a push by a crowd of people around and excited by the rally could have caused a premature shot and, therefore, disrupted Lenin’s murder plan. The organizers of the attempt decided not to risk it, and for this reason ...

There were two killers.

From the analysis of materials published by the B.N. Presidential Library. Yeltsin [12], it follows that two people shot at Lenin, and each of them was fired from a Browning pistol, model 1900. This is confirmed by the fact that four shells from this type of weapon were found at the crime scene. The first shooter fired three shots, the second - only one shot.

Photo No. 4. Lenin's jacket on which the inlets of three bullets are fixed [20].

Bullet No. 1 hit the shoulder joint, crushed it and stopped under the skin at the top of the left shoulder. Bullet number 2 broke the upper part of the left shoulder bone, as a result, changed its trajectory and stopped in the right upper neck area of ​​Lenin. Bullet number 3 was held in the space between the left hand and the body of the leader of the revolution, without causing him harm. Pay attention to the location of the inlets from the bullets. Very good accuracy of shooting, given that the shots were made in conditions of limited visibility (at dusk). It is quite obvious that a man who had excellent eyesight and impeccable shooting skills, able to remain calm under any circumstances, fired, and if he fired for the fourth time, the bullet would inevitably hit the target. But that did not happen. Seeing after three shots that Lenin was falling, and, having decided that the murder was committed, the shooter threw down his weapon and disappeared, taking advantage of panic among the rally participants. It was his weapon with the four non-shot cartridges that the Bolshevik Kuznetsov found [30]. Then how to explain the presence of four shells found at the crime scene? The author has the answer to this question.

According to the official conclusion of the investigating authorities, the position of the sleeves 5, 6, 7 was explained by the separation of the bodies of people running away after three shots fired [12]. But the position of the liner 4 investigators could not give an explanation. But it exists and only in a single version of the presentation. It is clear that the shooter, who threw a weapon after three shots and disappeared from the scene of the crime, could not make the fourth shot. Therefore, the sleeve 4 uniquely indicates the presence of the second arrow. He was near the first, but to the right of it in the direction of shooting. During the shot, the second murderer no longer had people in the closest environment - they fled, and this is proved by the position of the sleeve 4 relative to the location of the sleeves 5, 6, 7. The fourth sleeve was extracted (ejected) from the barrel of the pistol to the right, parallel to the direction of shooting and without encountering obstacles , was on the ground in a standard position for her, and a bullet hit a woman standing next to Lenin.
    And one more conclusion from the analysis of the circumstances of the assassination. The rally participants scattered in panic, shouting so loudly that they drowned out the sound of the fourth shot. That is why the witnesses of the incident said that they had heard three shots [37]. However, the four cartridges found indisputably prove that Lenin was shot four times.
    It can be argued that the second participant in the attempt on the leader of the October Revolution was a woman who had an extraordinary logic of thinking and phenomenal composure. Instead of escaping from the scene of the crime, as the first shooter did, after a shot she ran to the wounded Lenin. There already was a driver S. Gil. The woman introduced herself as a medical assistant and began to assist the leader of the proletariat [14]. Then, according to the testimony of the driver, two more men ran up to them. Their identities have been established [38]. Together, these four people put Lenin in a car. And now, the most important thing is that after the events that took place, the female paramedic has disappeared! According to the recollections of driver S. Gil, on arriving in the Kremlin after the assassination, he walked in front of Lenin, showing the way to the leader's apartment to two men who accompanied and supported the wounded man [39]. At the same time, the female medical assistant was absent, although it is quite logical that, as a medical worker, she should have been with the victim as a medical professional until the arrival of qualified doctors. Her absence is confirmed by the protocol of interrogation of one of those accompanying Lenin [40]. Moreover, this woman, as a witness of the incident, did not appear in the investigating authorities to give evidence.
    The stated arguments convincingly point to the involvement of the “medical assistant” in the attempt on Lenin. The woman helped put the wounded man in the car, but did not get into it. This is confirmed by the testimony of S. Gil: “Four went to the Kremlin” [14], that is, a driver, a wounded Lenin and two men. When the car drove away from the factory, she disappeared forever in the twilight of the evening of 30 August.

Another woman.

    After the assassination attempt, a lady was detained not far from the territory of the Michelson plant. In one hand she held a briefcase, in the other - an umbrella from the rain [11], [12]. The arrested woman was taken to the Zamoskvoretsky military commissariat. Her name was Fanny Kaplan.

Fanny Kaplan, 1918 (photographs from investigative materials) [42].

During the first interrogation, Kaplan admitted that it was she who shot Lenin because of her disagreement with the Bolshevik policy. She also stated that she had committed this act on her own personal initiative, and no one assisted her in the commission of a crime; she categorically denied her affiliation to any political organization [43]. An analysis of her behavior during the investigation unequivocally indicates that it was a self-contract. Fanny Kaplan took all the blame for the crime on herself and there are reasons for this conclusion. Firstly, it follows from the recognition of a well-known former terrorist terrorist L. Konopleva, who participated in several attempts against the leaders of the Bolshevik Party in 1917-1918, made by her during the trial in 1922: the act he takes on himself. He is obliged to remain silent about being a member of the Social Revolutionary Party, and to say that he acted on his own initiative and understanding ”[36]. That's exactly what Kaplan did. Secondly, the former terrorist L. Konoplyov subsequently stated: “Fanny Kaplan was a man of immaculate purity, devoted to the idea and for an idea capable of giving all her strength and even her own life” [44]. Kaplan did just that. She sacrificed her life. She was shot.
    And now we give the facts proving that Fanny Kaplan did not shoot at the leader of the proletariat. It is obvious that it is impossible to make accurate shots when a person has a briefcase in one hand and an umbrella in the other. When Kaplan was searched during her detention, no evidence was found indicating that she had been involved in the attempt [11] [41]. It is very strange, but there are no documents on the fingerprint examination of the fingerprints of the detained woman on the found gun [12]. Consequently, there is no evidence that the gun was in her hand during the shots. Of course, Soviet detectives suggested Fanny Kaplan to take part in an investigative experiment on the territory of the Michelson factory. However, the woman refused, and this is understandable - Kaplan could not indicate her location during the production of shots, because she did not shoot at Lenin. Instead of an investigative experiment, a dramatization of the crime was organized, the results of which were attached to the criminal case [12]. However, dramatization is a performance (show), and for this reason it is not proof of Kaplan’s guilt. And one more argument. Fanny Kaplan had impaired vision caused by a contusion from an accidental bomb blast while preparing a terrorist act in 1906. Convicted of terrorism to hard labor, she was blind there. Despite the treatment, she failed to fully restore her vision [36], [12], and she had at least a first degree of myopia [60]. Even in this case, in order to produce shots that were magnificent in accuracy, Lenin in the evening twilight, this woman had to shoot with glasses, but was not found when she was detained [11] [41]. And in general, the organizers of the attempt, of course, sensible people would never have entrusted the execution of the murder of V. Lenin to a half-blind woman.

The fate of Fanny Kaplan.

     Without trial, and only on the basis of verbal confessions (Kaplan refused to sign the interrogation protocols), the woman was shot on September 3, 1918 in the Kremlin at 16:00 Moscow time, and then her body was burned in a metal barrel [45], [46]. After cremation, this barrel was turned over at the place of reprisal and all that remained of the accused was poured out of it, and the Kremlin’s land absorbed its dust.
    And one more mysterious circumstance. Kaplan was liquidated four days after the arrest. And the murderer of Uritsky, who carried out the assassination attempt at 11 am on August 30 in the city of Petrograd, that is, on the same day, when Lenin was shot in the evening, was destroyed two months after the crime he committed [4]. From the comparison of these two events, an impression is created, turning into a firm certainty. There was a specific person who possessed great power and was interested in the fastest death of Fanny Kaplan in order to prevent a woman broken by interrogations from starting to give truthful testimonies from which one could establish the true customer of Lenin’s murder. And he was ...

The man who benefited from Lenin’s death.

     Let us analyze the situation on the day of the attempt on Lenin. On the morning of August 30, L. Uritsky was killed in Petrograd. The leader of the proletariat immediately sent there the chief security officer of the republic of Soviets, Felix Dzerzhinsky, in order to clarify the circumstances of the incident. Other active Bolshevik party leaders, Leon Trotsky and Joseph Stalin, were also absent in Moscow. They were on the fronts of the Civil War, leading the struggle of the Red Army against the armies of the former Tsarist generals and their allies from the Entente bloc. Consequently, in the inner circle of Lenin on that tragic day there was only I. Sverdlov. He was the second politically significant figure in the management structure of the Soviet state, and in this connection there are currently serious questions for him. First, why, on the basis of the prevailing situation on August 30, he did not ensure Lenin’s increased security at the two planned rallies? Secondly, why did he not try to dissuade the leader of the proletariat from refraining from speaking to the workers? For example, Lenin's sister made such an unsuccessful attempt [6], [7]. She felt with her heart that trouble was approaching her brother, but in most cases men neglect feminine intuition. Lenin decided to participate in rallies.
    An explanation for the inaction of Ya. Sverdlov exists. He well remembered a confidential conversation with Lenin in the city of Petrograd in 1917, held after an armed attack on a car in which the leader of the proletariat was traveling [36]. Lenin then said to his political struggle comrade: "If something happens to me, then you should continue the work of the revolution." This phrase convincingly proves that in that conversation Lenin actually recognized J. Sverdlov as his successor. An indirect confirmation of the conversation that took place is the next episode. In the evening of August 30, immediately after the assassination attempt, Y. Sverdlov appeared in the apartments of Lenin. At that moment, the possibility of the death of the leader of the proletariat from the received bullet wounds was not excluded. In desperation, the frightened wife of Lenin asked Sverdlov: “What will happen now?”. He reassuringly replied: “Everything is conspired with Ilyich (that is, with Lenin)” [46]. Of course, under stress, she did not understand the meaning of this phrase, but this remark clearly indicates that in the event of the death of the leader of the October revolution, Y. Sverdlov will lead the Land of Soviets.
    The only condition for the realization of the secret plan of J. Sverdlov to seize power was the physical elimination of Lenin, and this required time and favorable circumstances. And this situation developed on August 30, 1918. In order to achieve his goal as quickly as possible, J. Sverdlov had to turn to the leaders of the opposition party of social revolutionaries in the city of Moscow, with whom he was personally acquainted with the joint revolutionary struggle against the tsarist regime. By telephone, he promised to involve them in the management of the Soviet state if they organize the liquidation of Lenin. A political deal was made. Sverdlov, knowing in advance about the date of Lenin’s speeches at rallies, about the time and venues [6], [7], communicated this information to the organizers of the assassination, and in order to create conditions for the maximum vulnerability of the leader of the proletariat, he consciously did not take any measures to ensure his security.
    The first terrorist group, aimed at a rally at the Bread Exchange, was late. Lenin's speech there was already over, and he went to the Michelson factory. The second group of terrorists, led by Fanny Kaplan, arrived at this production facility at about 20 pm [18]. The rally had also ended by that time, but Lenin was near his car surrounded by the workers of the enterprise and answered their questions. Shots sounded. The leader of the proletariat was wounded, but no one knew how dangerous those injuries could be to his life. After a preliminary examination of the physical condition of Lenin by doctor A. Vinokurov [12], highly qualified medical specialists from the city of Moscow were immediately summoned to the victim in the Kremlin. By ten o'clock in the evening of that day, they delivered an unequivocal verdict - Lenin's life was out of danger [12], and J. Sverdlov realized that the assassination attempt had failed, and he now needed to save his ass. He began to act. At 22 hours and 40 minutes in the evening on August 30, that is, forty minutes after the appearance of the encouraging conclusion of the medical commission about Lenin's health, J. Sverdlov prepared a government document for urgent publication in the media in Russia and abroad [47].
In it, he actually announced the beginning of the "red terror", which was aimed at the destruction of the internal enemies of the Soviet Republic, and, as follows from an analysis of the context of the document, primarily against the leaders and members of the Social Revolutionary Party. The question is: what caused the specific focus on the elimination of the people of this particular political group? Answer: because it was urgently necessary to neutralize the witnesses of the secret political transaction concluded between them and J. Sverdlov. And it becomes perfectly clear the reason why Fanny Kaplan was killed without a trial on the fourth day after her arrest. This woman was a member of the Social Revolutionary Party, the leader of a terrorist group that committed a crime at the Michelson factory and, of course, she had information about the organizers of the assassination. In this regard, Fanny Kaplan has become an extremely undesirable and very dangerous person involved in the investigation into the circumstances of the attempt on Lenin and Y. Sverdlov, who had a premonition of the threat to her political career and life coming from her, ordered her to eliminate it. However, he did not know that two people were shooting at Lenin, and one of the shooters was neither Fanny Kaplan, but a completely different woman.

Her name is Lydia Konoplyova.

    After February 1917, she, a former anarchist, became a member of the Social Revolutionary Party and was an implacable and active enemy of the Bolshevik Party, absolutely sure that terror against them was necessary [45]. But for the implementation of terrorist acts needed a lot of money, which really could only be obtained through criminal actions (robberies). After one of these armed raids, law enforcement agencies of the Soviet government of the city of Petrograd detained L. Konoplev. Evidence of her participation in this episode was enough, and she was well aware that they could shoot her. By that time L. Konoplyova had a small child - a son, whose name was Boris [45], [53]. This circumstance predetermined her fate. At the suggestion of the investigating authorities to become an informer, the detained woman agreed. Thus, she became a double agent. Two tasks were put before her: first, to report on the plans of the counter-revolutionary organization, whose leaders fully trusted L. Konoplevoy, and second, under no circumstances to prevent her being exposed as an agent of the Cheka. A very limited circle of people knew about her recruitment, including the leader of the Bolsheviks of the city of Petrograd, Grigory Zinoviev, who at that time held two significant political posts corresponding to modern concepts to the posts of the mayor and governor of the region. [51]. When L. Konoplyov received information about her being sent to Moscow to participate in the attempt on Lenin, G. Zinoviev deliberately did not interfere with the implementation of this operation and forbade the Moscow city security agencies to report the planned terrorist act. He hoped that after the murder of Lenin, he would be able to seize power in the Soviet Republic. Another Bolshevik, Jacob Sverdlov, also sought to lead the Land of Soviets, which was also possible only if the leader of the proletariat was exterminated. Thus, independently of each other, the ultimate goal of these two people completely coincided, but each of them went to achieve it in their own way.
Sverdlov made a political deal with the leaders of the party of the social revolutionaries of the city of Moscow, leaving them to decide who will kill V. Lenin. L. Konopleva was a member of one of the two terrorist groups. In the political game of G. Zinoviev, his passed pawn or trump card was also L. Konopleva, an agent of the Cheka of the Petrograd city. And now let's analyze the development of events at the crossroads of which this woman turned out to be.
    Lydia Konoplyova arrived in Moscow from the city of Petrograd by train in March 1918 and settled in the base camp of the terrorists, which was located in the suburbs of the new capital of the Soviet state [36], [45]. In the afternoon of August 30, an urgent order was sent there to create two terrorist groups to assassinate Lenin. L. Konopleva did not have the opportunity to warn the bodies of the Cheka of the Petrograd city about the planned action, and to cooperate with a similar organization of the city of Moscow, she was strictly forbidden. Moreover, she was recruited as the perpetrator of the assassination as part of a second terrorist group led by Fanny Kaplan, aimed at the Michelson plant. It is logical that her refusal to participate in a terrorist act would have caused suspicion among the conspirators. Thus, the woman was in a very difficult position. However, she was a person with a pronounced phenomenal intuition, which allowed her to take an extraordinary, but the only correct decision in the current situation. To ensure an alibi before the leaders of the Social Revolutionary Party, Lydia Konoplyov shoots, but her weapon was deliberately directed away from Lenin’s body, and for this reason the bullet hit the woman who spoke to the leader of the proletariat. After the shot, L. Konopleva ran to the victim and assisted him, thereby providing the people around her with the impression that she was not involved in the assassination attempt. The further actions of this woman, namely, that she did not accompany the wounded, hid from the scene of the crime and did not appear in the investigative bodies of the Cheka for the city of Moscow to testify, have a logical and convincing explanation. She had to continue to fulfill her dual agent mission.
    The evidence of the fact that L. Konoplyova was connected with the punishing bodies of the Soviet Republic is the following surprising facts of her biography [36], [44], [45], [50].

1. After the attempted assassination of Lenin, she ceases her activities in the party of the social revolutionaries and leaves the members of this political organization in late 1918

2. In 1919–1920, L. Konoplyov was attracted by the Cheka authorities to participate in secret intelligence operations in Poland.

3. In February 1921, she became a member of the Bolshevik Party.

4. In the same year, she was given a job as a teacher in the organs of the GPU (the former organization of the Cheka) to give lectures on explosives and explosive devices. The former terrorist had substantial practical experience in this area of ​​knowledge.

5. At the direction of the bodies of the GPU, she gives revealing evidence at a political process organized by the Bolsheviks against the leaders and members of the Social Revolutionary Party in 1922. The court imposes a death sentence on almost all of the accused. And now the shocking fact No. 1 - witness L. Konopleva was also sentenced to death. The second shocking fact was that two days after the court sentenced her, the top leadership of the Bolshevik Party pardoned the woman.

6. After the amnesty, Lydia Konopleva continued to work in various institutions of the Soviet Republic until 1937.

Lydia Konopleva (photo of the thirties of the twentieth century) [52].

In 1937, a woman was arrested and shot in June. The reason for the liquidation is quite obvious - Konoplyov knew too much.


      Fanny Kaplan did not shoot at Lenin, but without a doubt was involved in the attempt on the life of the leader of the proletariat. At the Michelson plant, she served as the coordinator of the actions of the direct perpetrators of the terrorist act, of which there were two. The first shooter made three shots, the second shooter - only one shot. The name of the first killer is not installed. The second shooter, on the basis of the above arguments, was a woman and her name was Lydia Konopleva. Lenin’s death at that time was beneficial to the two statesmen of the Soviet Republic, Yakov Sverdlov and Grigory Zinoviev. Independently of each other, they had one goal - to seize power, which could only be accomplished as a result of the physical elimination of V. Lenin. However, after the assassination attempt, the leader of the proletariat survived, and for these two main conspirators came very difficult times, which ultimately led to their death. Sverdlov died under task conditions in 1919. G. Zinoviev was removed from power in January 1925, convicted by a Bolshevik court, executed in 1936.

                                    Afterword, without which it can not do.

    It is quite logical to carry out an uncomplicated comparative instrumental analysis of the traces of the pistol trigger mechanism on the primer of each of the four liners found. Such a trace is an individual weapon business card. Even within the same model range, there is no structural pattern of two identical deformation traces from a striking strike, just as there are no two identical fingerprints of people all over the world. And then it will be conclusively proved that the three sleeves belong to the found pistol, and the fourth sleeve - to the same, but completely different weapon, from which the second shooter fired. However, there is a problem. The evidence disappeared after 1925, but their existence before disappearance can be proved.
Photo from the book "Cheka. Main documents ”[56].

   It presents the Browning pistol, Model 1900, cartridges and cartridges, which are the material evidence of the assassination attempt on Lenin, as well as a bullet fixed on the base material, which was removed from the body of the leader of the proletariat. There is an explanatory note “We certify the authenticity of the bullet” and the signatures of the doctors who participated in the surgical operation for its removal. The date is “25. Iv. 1922
    Further. The well-known Russian artist V.N. Pcholin [59], after the death of the leader of the proletariat in 1924, decided to paint the film “Attempt on Lenin”. The Bolshevik government supported his idea and assisted him by providing all the necessary materials. The result of his preliminary work on the picture was a sketch of a pistol, from which they shot at Lenin. The characteristic details of the weapon of attempt, clearly indicating that the artist painted from the original, are clearly visible. The sketch dates from 1925. Consequently, during this period of time the pistol existed, and V. N. Pcholin saw him.

                             Afterword, without which it can not do.

    It is quite logical to carry out an uncomplicated comparative instrumental analysis of the traces of the pistol trigger mechanism on the primer of each of the four liners found. Such a trace is an individual weapon business card. Even within the same model range, there is no structural pattern of two identical deformation traces from a striking strike, just as there are no two identical fingerprints of people all over the world. And then it will be conclusively proved that the three sleeves belong to the found pistol, and the fourth sleeve - to the same, but completely different weapon, from which the second shooter fired. However, there is a problem. The evidence disappeared after 1925, but their existence before disappearance can be proved.

Photo from the book "Cheka. Main documents ”[56].

   It presents the Browning pistol, Model 1900, cartridges and cartridges, which are the material evidence of the assassination attempt on Lenin, as well as a bullet fixed on the base material, which was removed from the body of the leader of the proletariat. There is an explanatory note “We certify the authenticity of the bullet” and the signatures of the doctors who participated in the surgical operation for its removal. The date is “25. Iv. 1922
    Further. The well-known Russian artist V.N. Pcholin [59], after the death of the leader of the proletariat in 1924, decided to paint the film “Attempt on Lenin”. The Bolshevik government supported his idea and assisted him by providing all the necessary materials. The result of his preliminary work on the picture was a sketch of a pistol, from which they shot at Lenin. The characteristic details of the weapon of attempt, clearly indicating that the artist painted from the original, are clearly visible. The sketch dates from 1925. Consequently, during this period of time the pistol existed, and V. N. Pcholin saw him.

Sketch of the artist V.N. Pcholina. 1925 (“Museum of V.I. Lenin”, former “Central Museum of V.I. Lenin”, Moscow) [57].

           After 1925 and up to the present time there is no information on the location of the weapon, four cartridges and four cartridges.

Two more intriguing facts.

A fragment of a photograph from the book “Cheka. Main documents ”[56].

A fragment of modern photography from the “V.Lenin Museum” in Moscow [58].

Each of them contains a bullet extracted from the body of the leader of the proletariat in 1922. And now attention. First, the location of the bullets in these photographs differ from each other by 180 degrees. Secondly, it seems visually that they are completely different bullets in shape. Explanations of these contradictions should be sought in the secret archives of the investigating authorities. Most likely, there are also evidence of a crime that disappeared after 1925, namely a pistol, cartridges and four shells, proving that there were two killers.

     By the way, where is the second bullet that was removed from Lenin’s body after his death in 1924? In open media sources her picture is missing. The exhibition "Museum VI. Lenin ”(Moscow) she is also not represented, although it is quite logical that her presence there, next to the first bullet taken from the body of the leader of the proletariat, would be appropriate. The author of the publication has two options for answering this question. Either the people who investigated the circumstances of the attempt, motivated or unmotivated, decided that the second bullet should be kept in secret archives, and it is still kept there in some unattractive dust-filled box of time, in complete oblivion. Either the second bullet was inadvertently destroyed along with the waste of the embalming process of Lenin’s body, and this could really happen in the conditions of haste and nervousness in preparation for the funeral of the leader of the Russian proletariat and this is the most likely cause of its disappearance.


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2. (Sverdlov, Yakov Mikhailovich).
3. (Uritsky, Moses Solomonovich).
4. (Kannegiser, Leonid Ioakimovich).
5. (Felix Edmundovich Dzerzhinsky).
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12. (Testimony of the doctor Vinokurov and the assistant to the military commissar of the 5th Moscow Soviet Infantry Division and other materials about the attempt ...).
13. (Map of Moscow Suvorin for 1915).
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30. (Fanny Kaplan investigation case. Interrogation protocol A.V. Kuznetsova, September 02, 1918).
31. (Fanny Kaplan: a terrorist who shot at Lenin, or a victim of the Cheka conspiracy).
32. (Browning M1900 Pistol).
33. (Fanny Kaplan: a terrorist who shot at Lenin, or a victim of the Cheka conspiracy).
34. (Investigative case of Fani Kaplan. Report on the discovered cases on September 2, 1918).
35. (Receptions and rules for firing from a revolver and a pistol).
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37. (Investigation of Fani Kaplan. Protocols of interrogation of V.Ye. Syromotov, date not indicated; S.K. Gil, August 30, 1918; V.M. Gromov, August 30, 1918; IA Bogdeyevich, August 30, 1918; S. N. Batulina, August 30, 1918; statements and interrogation protocol of A. V. Kuznetsov, dated August 31 and September 2, 1918).
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39. C.K. Gil Six years from V.I. Lenin. Memories of personal driver Vladimir Ilyich Lenin. - Moscow, 1957, Young Guard publishing house, 104 p.
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42. (Having seen how Fanny Kaplan was shot, the poet Demian Poor fainted).
43. (Fanny Kaplan Investigation Case. Minutes of the interrogation of Fanny Kaplan, August 30, 1918, at 11.30 am).
44. (L. Konopleva, 9th part (Victor Konoplev 2) /
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60. (Myopia).
61. Television series "Born of the Revolution", the second series. Film Studio named after Alexander Dovzhenko, the creative association "Ray".

© Vasily Vladimirovich Sapozhnikov
August 30, 2018 - June 10, 2019.