Wednesday, August 24, 2016

Mystery Shadow Creature Found On Mars? 2016

Sensational investigation! Mystery, flown away from the plane Amelia Earhart. 2016.

Mystery, flown away from the plane Amelia Earhart.
 The most famous among the Amazons Aviation - American pilot Amelia Earhart (Amelia Earhart). It has established a number of aviation records, including the place of honor it has won a single transatlantic flight from America to Europe in 1932. Five years later, Earhart again decided to conquer the world with their courage and bravery, trying to make a round the world flight. Nearly at the final stage of air travel plane and the crew disappeared over the Pacific Ocean. The two-week search yielded no results and July 18, 1937 search operations were discontinued, and a year later, missing the aircraft crew, was officially declared dead. Despite this, for more than 75 years, the fate of the aircraft and its pilots continue to excite people. Write books, articles, films are shot; by individual enthusiasts and a number of non-profit organizations conducting research of archival materials, the search operation in places where it is supposed to detect real signs of last stay lёtchitsy and her co-driver or the wreckage of their aircraft.There are currently three versions of the death of the crew: the emergency landing of the plane in the Pacific waters, a Japanese prisoner on a deserted atoll Nikumororo (Nikumororo) in the Pacific Ocean.None of these versions of indisputable evidence to date does not.
 The path to the circumnavigation flight.
 Amelia Erhart. [1]
For the first time at the wheel plane Amelia Earhart village in 1921. She quickly mastered the airfield business, and in May 1923, officially received a license of the International Aeronautical Federation and became a licensed pilot. [2]In 1927, together with pilot Wilmer Stultz (Wilmer Stultz) and flight engineer Lou Gordon (Louis Gordon), Amelia Earhart makes the flight across the Atlantic from Newfoundland to the coast of England. Lack of experience of piloting a heavy aircraft did not allow her to control it in the air, and in this flight are Amelia appeared as an extra. Nevertheless, it was a success, there is talk about it. After the flight, it takes part in various air shows in the territory of the United States, continues to set records of different categories of aircraft. Amelia Earhart became one of the leaders of the feminist movement in the United States. Name pilot not gone from the pages of the American press.World fame came to her in 1932 when she was alone crossed the Atlantic Ocean, it flown from Newfoundland - Northern Ireland. It was the second in a row a single transatlantic flight, followed the flight of her compatriot Charles Lindbergh (Charles Lindbergh) in 1927. She became the first woman in the world, to commit such an air trip over the waters of the Atlantic. Europe applauded the brave lёtchitse. She won the highest awards in many countries (except the USSR, of course). After returning from Europe to the United States, the American people gave her a resounding triumph, not inferior in anything triumph on the European continent. It received the status of National Hero of America, one of the highest US award; she met with the family of President, representatives of the establishment of the United States considered it an honor to meet her. For her numerous show-tour of the country were organized, which were followed by meetings Amil Earhart with her admirers, press interviews, demonstration flights.Future Amelia Earhart are better than ever. Lёtchitsy husband George Putnam (George Putnam) was a reliable support in life and business partner in everything that concerned the professional activities of the spouses. After the famous flight across the Atlantic Ocean in 1932. A. Earhart set a still a number of records, was involved in cooperation with the University of Purdue (Purdue University) in Indiana, where she was engaged in research on aeronautics, where she opened a flying school. Pilot continued to improve your flying skills, having mastered the technique of flight in heavy multi-engine airplanes; A transport license of the National Association of the US aeronautics, allows her to perform passenger flights [2]. But Earhart remained unfulfilled even one dream - to make a round the world flight. She even decided on the plane, which would like to fly around the globe; they became the twin-engine "Lockheed Electra 10A." Knowing about her dream, Purdue University on donations made by several individuals, ordered and paid for the construction of this type of aircraft. When ordering in its design changes were made necessary to perform the flight. July 24, 1936, the birthday of Amelia Earhart, Purdue University officially handed her twin-engine plane of the special model - "Lockheed Electra 10-E» with tail number NR 16020 [3]. And from that day I began a full-scale preparation for the circumnavigation flight.
 Lockheed - Electra 10 E NR 16020. (Purdue University Libraries, Archives and Special Collections) [3]
Round the World flight. First try.
By mid-March 1937, everything was ready for the record flight. The crew consisted of the pilot Amelia Earhart, and two navigators Harry Manning (Harry Manning) and Fred Noonan (Fred Noonan). March 17 kicked off a plane from Oakland (Oakland), United States, and headed westward, first to make a stopover in Hawaii in Honolulu (Honolulu). At the appointed time the plane landed safely, but it took preventive work with engines, and to this end, the plane flew to the island of Ford (Ford Island) not far from Honolulu. After completion of the work planned continuation of the circumnavigation flight. The morning of March 20 at a take-off from Ford Island during the run-up to the plane crash occurred. The materials published in the press indicating that the plane crash was due to the rupture of the right wheel landing gear tires. However, the reason for the special commission into the accident aircraft did not establish its gap [3]. The main thing - there were no casualties but the aircraft seriously injured and was sent for repair.





 Ford Island. Morning 5 hours 53 minutes. March 20, 1937,Amelia's help to leave the plane after the crash. (Hawaii's Aviation History) [3]
A bad start, and followed, after this, a sudden departure from the crew navigator Harry Manning, of course, upset Amelia Earhart, but did not affect her determination to resume the interrupted flight. Her first thought was to find a replacement for Manning. However, after reflection, tips with her husband and taking into account that Fred Noonan was one of the most experienced navigators of the time, she came to the firm conviction: Noonan and one will be able to cope with the responsibilities of the navigator in the newly scheduled flight. Rumors about his abuse alcohol [4], Earhart did not attach special significance. Fred Noonan, for its part, accepted the offer without hesitation lёtchitsy to stay in the carriage, having decided to share all the burdens of air travel in the second attempt to fly around the globe.



 Erhart Amelia and Fred Noonan [5]Round the World flight. 
A second attempt.
The aircraft was repaired and 1 June 1937, he successfully took off from the airport in Miami (Miami), leaving US territory and taking a course, now in the east, in the direction of South America. Selection of the eastern direction of flight was due to a change in wind direction which, for the most part, by the beginning of the second start steel drive-crew on most of the planned route. The flight passed without a single accident, his schedule was kept. Only only trouble marred successfully performed circumnavigation flight. It happened in the area of ​​flight across the Atlantic from the city of Natal (Natal), Brazil in Dakar (Dakar), Senegal. On this route Noonan made a navigational error, which resulted in the plane appeared near the Atlantic coast of Africa, but in all its foreseeable coast capital city of Senegal Dakar crew did not detect. Not knowing precisely of finding the aircraft at the time, Noonan suggested Earhart fly south, but pilot contrary to the suggestion of a navigator aircraft deployed to the north. Within five miles of the flight ended safely landing at the airport of the city of Saint-Louis (Senegal), is located in 163 nautical miles (302 kilometers) north of Dakar. This deviation from the route was very significant, and who knows what would have ended with the flight of the aircraft at the site round the world flight, Earhart obey his navigator. But all is well that ends well, though in a shower at Amelia's disappointment over a mistake navigator left and erstwhile confidence in the infallibility Noonan hesitated. From St. Louis crew continued on his round the world flight.Arrival to the island of Lae.June 29 plane "Lockheed Electra" landed at the airport of the island Lae (Lae Island), New Guinea (New Guinea). June 30 followed by rest and preparation for the launch, scheduled for July 1st. Earhart and Noonan were flying from Lae Island Howland Island (Howland Island), located in the Pacific Ocean. It was the site of extended world tour route amounts to 2556 nautical miles (4 km 733.7).By the time of arrival on the island of Lae crew it was already extremely exhausted. The closer to the end was coming round the world flight, the more Noonan after landing began to take off stress and fatigue of alcohol, sometimes in large quantities. There were cases when on board the aircraft, ready for takeoff, Noonan helped up [4]. This behavior is a partner more and more irritated and angered pilot that she was tired at least, if not more co-driver. Not relying too much on help relaxing Noonan, pilot had the most to solve various organizational and technical issues related to ensuring the continuation of the flight.1 July to take off from the island of Lae failed due to unfavorable weather conditions over him. There were also problems with the radio organization. Periodically coming weather report on the flight route is constantly changing and different completeness and accuracy. For these reasons, the start was postponed to July 2nd.The weather report was reported that in some places on the route expected to be cloudy in the form of cirrus and cumulus clouds, and Howland Island area the lower edge of the clouds could be located at an altitude of 300 meters above the ocean waters. During the flight, the aircraft could meet the storm front or get into the restricted area of ​​torrential rains. Wind speed can reach up to 23 knots (11.83 m / s). Wind expected mainly easterly direction, but sometimes it can be the north-east, the south-east. In any case, in the upcoming flight are winds should be considered counter for aircraft course, inevitably leads to an increase in fuel consumption. To minimize fuel consumption Amelia Earhart recommended to fly at a speed of 140 knots (259.28 km / h) and at a height of not more than 8000 feet (434.4 m 2).
       
Due to a large extent the way over the ocean serious concern for the crew caused the radio. All your posts should lёtchitsa transmit voice, because Morse code nor Earhart or Noonan practically owned. To reduce the likelihood of distortion of words in the transmission of voice messages in flight, had compiled a list of 105 cuts the most used words and terms [49], for example, instead of the word «cloudy» (cloudy), Earhart pronounced CLDY letters, or instead of the word «respond» ( answer) - AR. However, even in this case, for the reliability and stability of communication on the route of flight nobody could vouch. Time to broadcasting was strictly defined, and radio communications were performed on two radio frequencies: the day - 6210 kHz at night - 3105 kHz. The use of in-flight two frequencies was due to different cross radio waves in the atmosphere during the day. Radio communication was maintained with the crew of the radio station, located on the island of Lae and radio ship Navy US Coast Guard «Itaska», on duty off the coast of Howland Island. From these same stations were to come on board the aircraft weather reports. At the final stage of the route to the guaranteed yield on the Lost island in the ocean, pilot planned to use the radio bearing, which she was supposed to provide the ship «Itaska».





Navy US Coast Guard ship «Itaska» [5]

On the night before the launch, Earhart has not been able to sleep. Assailed by questions and thoughts related to the upcoming flight: "Do not fail Noonan? Fly have far and long, and part of the route they will have to fly at night. According to forecasts of likely cloudy, possible showers in places. Because of the long residence time of the aircraft in the air appear increased fatigue, which will have an impact on the actions of each member of the crew, and that may well lead to irreparable mistakes - one in the management plane, the other in laying his course. Only Noonan would not go in flight with a hangover, as happened during the flight from Brazil to Africa. They are then due to the co-pilot error lost on the African coast, but in the end, landed safely. Now, here under the wing of the aircraft will not land, and the foaming waves of a vast ocean with it lost in the tiny island. If you stray off course and use up all the fuel, you have to put the car on a land troubled Pacific waters, but it is not so easy. Even if you get successful splash down, no prospect of salvation will not because to file a distress signal will not be possible, due to the fact that the radio station is likely to be de-energized. So, the chances of searchers and rescuers to find and rescue the crew of the trouble will be equal to almost zero. And the plane, despite the empty fuel tanks, it is unknown how long it will last afloat. In general, the margin for error nor she nor Noonan's not. " Long after midnight, Amelia forgotten anxiously half asleep.

Start the flight into the unknown.

July 2, 1937. Morning. Aerodrome services produced prestart inspection of the aircraft. Thoroughly tested runway airfield - nothing should prevent the overloaded take-off aircraft. Pilot Weight "Lockheed Electra" was about 15 000 pounds (6804 kg). The aircraft fuel tanks were pumped 1,100 gallons of American high-octane fuel (4164 liters). It was quite enough for the flight to Howland Island, however, in case of complications in a way, to overcome them this amount of fuel had a very small margin.
Some elements of the plane Amelia Earhart [8], [9]


      Aircraft Takeoff was captured on film [6], [7]. In the first images of the film on the airfield curious locals gathered in front of airplane. Further in cine lens fall Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan. As it is impossible to determine whether the footage was a navigator in the morning with a hangover or not, but it looks cheerful, smiling; Amelia helps to climb on an airplane wing. Then Noonan gently climbs into the plane through the top hatch of the aircraft. Following the navigator his place on the plane took Amelia Earhart. Inside, "Lockheed Electra" were placed additional fuel tanks immediately behind the pilot's seat, as well as desktop navigator with chronometers and livelihoods: food, thermoses, inflatable rocket. During the flight, if necessary, to get out of the cockpit in the aircraft cabin could only crawl on top of the fuel tank.



Some elements of the plane Amelia Earhart [8], [9]
Aircraft Takeoff was captured on film [6], [7]. 
In the first images of the film on the airfield curious locals gathered in front of airplane. Further in cine lens fall Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan. As it is impossible to determine whether the footage was a navigator in the morning with a hangover or not, but it looks cheerful, smiling; Amelia helps to climb on an airplane wing. Then Noonan gently climbs into the plane through the top hatch of the aircraft. Following the navigator his place on the plane took Amelia Earhart. Inside, "Lockheed Electra" were placed additional fuel tanks immediately behind the pilot's seat, as well as desktop navigator with chronometers and livelihoods: food, thermoses, inflatable rocket. During the flight, if necessary, to get out of the cockpit in the aircraft cabin could only crawl on top of the fuel tank.
There were the last words of encouragement and wishes for a successful flight. The aircraft and crew to take off were ready. Start the engine. After warming up the engines, "Lockheed Electra" slowly taxiing to the runway for a few seconds and stops at the very edge of it, as if not wanting to part with vending, hospitable island. But the sure hand of Amelia Earhart brings the engine speed to take-off mode, releases the brake, and the "Lockheed Electra" gracefully taking off, quickly and happily said goodbye to the beautiful land, and now hurrying to a meeting with your favorite stars.


July 2, 1937. The plane is leaving Amelia Island Lae [5].

Silver twin-engine plane "Lockheed Electra" kicked off at 10 am local time (GMT-00 hours 00 minutes), counting 20-hour flight to land on Howland Island in the Pacific Ocean.


Howland Island [10] (even today runway is clearly visible).

Mystery, born at aircraft takeoff from Lae Island.

       When the plane took off and disappeared into heaven given service airport staff began to disperse for the performance of their daily duties. Two airfield employee, reducing the path to the location of the service, went through the takeoff field. Suddenly one of them stumbled and almost fell; then he bent down and picked up something from the ground. In his hands was a piece of wire. Looking closely, he said to his companion: "Look, it is like a piece of wire antenna. In the morning, when I examined before the start of the aircraft runway, the wire here, sure, it was not. Is it possible that the plane broke off the antenna during takeoff? ". Comrade, shrugged, said: "It seems that way. I, like, thought that was the moment when under the fuselage of the aircraft taking off, there was a dusty cloud. Maybe it created this dish cut short? ".
      Indeed, on 33 - 34 seconds watching the film [6], [7] there are pictures, which show how the aircraft during take-off under the fuselage there is a mysterious cloud of dust. These frames have investigated experts. They are likely to have known the stories of old residents of the island of Lae antenna piece, found on the airfield after the departure of the aircraft Amelia Earhart [11], so the experts concluded it was quite predictable: "cloud of dust formed a lower cut short a radio antenna."
      At the request of the organization TIGHAR of film in 1999. investigated Jeff Glickman (PHOTEK INK.). He came to the conclusion that on the lower frames photographed at the aircraft antenna is not visible and may not [12]. Further computer digital processing of film, Jeff Glickman conducted in 2000, revealed in the aircraft taking off fuzzy image of the Pitot tube in a position to assume its curvature [13].

TIGHAR group version of the cause of the damage in the aircraft "Lockheed Electra".

     The research team TIGHAR (executive director Rick Gillespie) has put forward a hypothesis about the impact of the lower fuselage antenna holder on the mound airfield when peretyazhelёnny fuel plane taxied to the start line; The resulting collision broke off the holder [14]. If you continue to follow this hypothesis, it turns out that after hitting a broken holder for the drag on the ground plane with a portion of sagging wire antenna. Then, caught on the uneven, as a sea anchor on the bottom, he pulled and completely cut the antenna, which in turn, pulling and before break off, bent the right pitot tube. The article [15] specified distance from the end of the antenna holder to the surface of the airfield - 16 inches (0.4 meters), ie the height of the bumps to break off the holder must comply with this value. It is simply impossible to believe that the airfield services Lae island, ready to take the world famous plane Amelia Earhart in her record round the world flights, can not ignore such a dangerous height roughness on the airfield airfield.
Airfield in Lae was built in 1927. Soon after him the reputation of a reliable air transport hub, skipping significant flows of people and goods for the needs of the gold mine around Wau and gold mines in Bulolo (Papua, New Guinea) [16].


Lae Island Aerodrome (1931-1932 year) [25].

By 1937, the airport had already smooth, good long-term operation of compacted clay airfield with little grass. Therefore, the cause of damage to the aircraft eliminates tussock author and sees it in the human factor, to express themselves coincidence on the day of departure.


The new version of the aircraft because of injuries Earhart at Lae Island.

Everything happened at the airfield after the staff rolled out the serviceable aircraft out of the hangar, and when the front plane prepared for takeoff, a crowd of local people, consisting of men, women and adolescents. Among Aboriginal people, animatedly discussing the events of the morning, there was one boy, whose name and whose fate remained unknown forever, but its possible action could be directly related to the tragic fate of the aircraft and its crew. When the natives posed to aircraft background front of the camera [6], [7], the teenager was behind them unattended, and maybe because of mischief, or omitted by the nonsense, grabbed hold of the two unknown to him contraption sticking out in front at the bottom of the fuselage of the aircraft, and hung on them. Under his weight both gizmos bent, and some broken wire is attached to one of them. Fearing mischief once quickly disappeared into the crowd of the total Aboriginal; it unseemly act and the consequences of this act were not seen by anyone, the lens cameras, this incident also did not get.
       Slanting gizmos were pitot tubes. Pitot tube - a device which measures the speed of the aircraft in flight, and which, for this purpose, always aligned parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft in the absence of the field distortion of the air flow. Two tubes were bent downwards from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft at the same angle; its magnitude could be up to 10 degrees. [29]


Takeoff Amelia Island to Lae. If this is not an illusion, the pitot tubes are bent [17], [18]


The design of the two Pitot tubes were exactly the same and worked independently of each other. On the left pipe measurement data received on the dashboard of the first pilot (left seat), to the right of the tube - on dashboard co-pilot (right seat).


Location A Pitot tubes the "Lockheed Electra 10-E» [19]
(Based on the growth of the men in the lower right corner of the picture, it is obvious - a tube placed low; the teenager could reach them)

The left-hand pilot's seat is traditionally considered the seat in aviation aircraft commander, and then performs his circumnavigation flight are rightly took Amelia Earhart. Being at the helm in the left seat, she was able to control the speed of the aircraft according to one of the two speed indicators, which are located on the dashboard.


Lockheed Electra 10-E" The cockpit of the aircraft. [35]

      Due to the curvature of the same tube, reading both speed indicators were respectively the same and, at the same time, erroneous. Earhart, not knowing about the malfunction of devices, transmit incorrect information about the navigator speed, which used them during the required dead reckoning related to determining the location of the aircraft on the flight route. Thus, in the present calculations, the navigator constantly accumulating error causing the deviation of the aircraft off course. Later, the crew attempted to correct the course on the radio were unsuccessful, because the radio was unstable and sometimes even absent.
      For radio the plane was equipped with two antennas. One was located on top of the other - from the bottom of the fuselage. Lower antenna, receiving radio signals, are fixed to the fuselage using two brackets-holders (front and rear). The end of the antenna was attached to the right pitot tube.


Fred Noonan and Amelia Earhart sit in the "Lockheed Electra", the city of San Juan, Puerto Rico, June 2, 1937 (Bettman / CORBIS) [20], [21], [30] (the antenna is selected for clarity).

      antenna breakage occurred at the site of its attachment to the tube. Broken antenna portion, held with his other front end of the bracket, sagged and was on the ground.


Possible position ragged antenna area before the start of the aircraft in Lae (the author's drawing)

       Then a piece of hanging antennas, dragged under by plane, clinging to the small irregularities of the aerodrome, at some portion thereof may break off. Perhaps it was this piece of antenna and found a takeoff on the field after the departure of the aircraft Amelia Earhart. Part of the radio antenna is located between the bracket-holders could well remain on the fuselage and may remain operational, but in this case the reliability of reception of radio signals on the background of unstable weather deteriorated significantly. Analysis radiograms exchange between the operator of the ship station «Itaska» and Amelia Earhart, confirms the existence of problems with the radio.

The effects of curvature of the Pitot tubes.

     Recall, for the correct operation of the pitot tube is required, so that it is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, and it is obligatory in places of absence of distortions of air flow. In this case the incoming flight in the air flow entering the inlet tube opening, brake and creates overpressure inside it.

This pressure is proportionally converted into a reading on the instrument, called in air speed indicator.


Air indicator US-350 rate [32].

If both the pitot tube on the Earhart plane were bent, the air flow, getting into them, and created a distorted pressure lower value.



For this reason, both devices showed low values ​​of aircraft speed; in fact it was higher, and perhaps significantly. This resulted in the following. During the flight, to ensure the economical fuel consumption mode, Amelia Earhart tried to maintain its value to the recommended airspeed of 140 knots, the instrument. But some devices "lied"; the plane was flying at a speed of more than 140 knots and fuel consumption due to this increased accordingly. In addition, the additional fuel consumption increase factor was headwinds, which, according to the records logbook «Itaska» ship, had on the flight route predominantly east-south direction. [33] It is not surprising that after 20 hours of flight, Earhart said in the telegram operator of the ship station of the rapidly decreasing fuel reserve, ive the same telegram sounded her despair words: "We are over you, but you do not see". [34] One can imagine the horror gripped Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan at the time on board the "Lockheed Electra". They were convinced that in the fuel tanks of the aircraft had to remain still enough fuel - at least four hours of flight; and, most importantly, by all calculations, the plane has had to be within sight of Howland Island. Break on shouting voice Amelia Earhart turned to his co-driver: "Is off course again, as then over the Atlantic? Well, just have no luck with these oceans. I probably will not survive. Now I just go crazy! Noonan - well, do well anything !!! "
      Well, I could do Noonan? Not the fact that he was to blame for everything happened. The navigator used dead reckoning when the indicator (instrument) aircraft speed (Indicated Air speed - IAS), incorrect values ​​which informed him of Amelia. According to these data, without knowing it, as Earhart, that "lie" devices, navigator calculated the true airspeed (True Air speed - TAS), which value is, of course, wrong. Using the calculated "true" rate and derived from terrestrial radio stations certainly approximate data on wind direction and speed, Noonan determined the location of the aircraft on the route, and deviations from it. But the mistake was present in all calculations. Therefore headphones sounded the ship's radio service operator fateful phrase "we are above you, but you do not see" allows to make the assumption that the aircraft off course and, with rapidly decreasing supply of fuel, was over the ocean, out of sight Howland Island. A little later, the last radio message from Amelia Earhart was obtained, which contained the following muddled message: "We are moving along the line 157 - 337 ... North - South".


Simplified, schematic illustration of the flight route. Lae - about. Howland.

Said radiogram in line - it Line of position (LOP). After determining the position of the line in place of finding the plane, the line can be computed destination position. In flight, Noonan has determined the value of the aircraft position line during sunrise, when the "Lockheed Electra" was approximately 200 nautical miles (370.6 km) from Howland Island. He then calculated the value of the position line to the island, which was the value of 1570 - 3370, and drew the line on the map at the place of its location. Reaching inscribed on the line card, the plane had to be on this little piece of land, or very close to it. Text last radio message indicating that the line item "157 - 337" airplane left. But that's where the left and right if released, but later on this.
      The crew «Itaska» with Howland Island airport staff did not wait for the plane Amelia Earhart. None of the members of the ship have not heard even a distant sound, like the hum of the airplane engines; airwaves, ominously hissing silence; nearly cloudless, blue sky was empty, and the waves of the ocean of dark emerald indifferently ran toward the horizon. So, where is has completed his last flight, "Lockheed Electra 10-E" on-board NR 16020 number? Today it is necessary to put forward only assumptions.

Version One.

    According to the researchers TIGHAR group, the plane flew to the uninhabited atoll Nikumororo, the old name of which - the island Gardner (GardnerI sland).


Atoll Nikumororo [46]. On the bottom right is viewed rusty skeleton of the ship «SS Norwich City».

The plane managed to land on the coastal strip of the atoll, but in the end, the crew died there from lack of fresh water, food, possible diseases; and the plane was gradually washed away from the coast in the vicinity of deep atoll strong surf. Researchers group TIGHARna Atoll Nikumororo some artifacts have been found: a glass jar, which once was the cream of freckles (to them, by the way, Ameria Earhart really struggled constantly); fragments of green bottle from under the hand lotion (also cosmetic attribute of women), half-decayed elements of the shoe, rusty knife and other small items. Finally, they found an aluminum plate with holes for rivets and suggested that it is a structural element of the aircraft Earhart [40], [41], [42]. However, the entire membership of this set of findings to the crew, "Lockheed Electra" has not yet been proved, and it is unlikely it will be possible.
       Long before the flight, on the atoll Nikumororo lived seasonally Brigade pearl fishers who sailed to a nearby islands. Since 1939 on the atoll were trying to organize a colony of settlers from among white people and natives. Of course, among them were women who could very well be different cosmetics. The colonists had tools supplied with clothing and different materials, including a piece of skin of the aircraft could be delivered to the island, and it certainly would be useful to the settlers in their economy.
        In 1940, while clearing the area under cultivation of coconut palms, some of the colonists discovered a small part of the poorly preserved human bones. There is an expert opinion at the time that they belonged to most likely man-Polynesians, who died on the atoll in the age range 45-55 years. Perhaps the remains belonged to one of the pearl divers, who may well have to suffer and die from the bite of a shark attacked him. Also found was an empty box from under the sextant, the housing having two rooms. However, the numbers failed to trace his identity. Judging by the shape and design, the box could be made in the twenties - thirties of the last century. Such storage boxes sextant used in aviation and in shipping.
   In 1929, a storm on the coast of the atoll was thrown ship «SS Norwich City», engaged in fishing. Part of the crew was killed, part - escaped. Some time surviving crew members lived on the island, leading the daily struggle for survival. The surviving sailors soon saved the ship, it happened to be in the area of ​​the atoll. The skeleton of the ill-fated «SS Norwich City», still rust on the coast, gradually collapsing under the influence of humid climate and ocean waves. Found a box could well belong to the navigator of the ship. After all, with the sinking ship always try to pick up the first navigational instruments and ship's log. Unfortunately, the fragments of the skeleton and a box somewhere lost in the same 1940, and their fate is unknown.
 Researchers TIGHAR group going to repeat the search for the wreckage of the plane in the vicinity of deep-sea island. And if they find them there, it will be conclusive evidence that confirms the version of the death of the crew on the atoll.

Version Two.

       It's called "Japanese trace". According to her, "Lockheed Electra 10-E" of the aircraft during a flight crew attempted to get intelligence about Japanese air and naval bases on several islands of the Pacific, of course, at the request of the US intelligence services. For this purpose, the aircraft would necessarily have equipped photographic equipment; without her reconnaissance flight would have no meaning. First, "Lockheed Electra" briefly flew for an official statement from, but then somewhere strayed from it to the north, while continuing to maintain radio contact and thus creating the illusion that the aircraft on the route. Perhaps one of the Japanese base on which Earhart flew the plane, was organized by the pursuit of them, and Japanese fighters forced the crew to land. However, evidence of a forced landing there, just as there is no information about the capture of the crew under any other circumstances.
        Proponents of the Japanese version at different times of the survey conducted among local residents of the area a number of islands. Josephine Akiyama (Josephine Blanco Akiyama) was 11 years old in 1937. When she went to her brother, who served in the Japanese military base, to give him a lunch meal, then I saw two people of European appearance. They were surrounded by Japanese soldiers that somewhere they have withdrawn. Someone saw in the hangar at the air base of the plane, similar to the one which flew American crew, and that the Japanese burned by retreating from the island. Someone heard that in prison on the island of Saipan (Saipan Island) were for some time a man and woman of the white race; where they either died, or were executed. Someone told me that the prisoners were taken from the prison in an unknown direction [43], [44], [45]. If it were Amelia Earhart and Fred Noonan, Japan would not conceal the fact of their captivity, and having strong evidence - photographic equipment, damning the crew as a scout - have arranged an international scandal, accusing the US of spying against the rising sun. As you know, this has not happened.
       And, in general, take reconnaissance flight did not need to. US intelligence agencies received information on Japanese bases through agents recruited from the local population. They were led by Intelligence residents - a man and a woman of European appearance. Both were arrested on suspicion of espionage, they are then held in Saipan prison to find out - to those who are working. It is these events, depending on who and what is heard or seen, were reflected in the contradictory memories of the islanders. By the way, the Soviet intelligence resident in Japan, Richard Sorge, there was a similar story. Because of the failure of his agent - the Japanese, he was arrested and was in jail under investigation. As a result, he was executed, but what intelligence he worked then and has not been found [47].
       Ships of the US Navy searched for the crew "Lockheed Electra" on an area of ​​500 to 500 nautical miles west of Howland Island, and south of it, employing carrier aviation for the flyby of some islands and atolls, including the atoll Nikumororo. no trace of the disaster in July 1937, were found in the surveyed areas of the ocean and islands.
       Found later in the archives of the photograph taken by Eric Bevington (Eric Bevington) Atoll Nikumororo in October 1937, it does not prove anything. Researchers group TIGHAR immediately suggested that the strange object in the photo - it's part of the chassis Earhart plane. However, their assumption is contradicted by the atoll flyby in July 1937, when search for the missing aircraft was carried out, as they say, by "hot pursuit". Then on the atoll have not found any aircraft or its parts destroyed, and generally no signs of habitability of the island. Most likely, in October 1937 on the photographic film was filmed some fragment of the ship «SS Norwich City». Even now shipwreck constantly unpredictable migrate along the coast, driven by impinging on the atoll ocean waves.


Photo Eric Bevington [48], with enhanced digital processing of unknown object. (Right «SS Norwich City», on the left or it is some kind of a piece of the ship, or an optical illusion)

Version Three.

      The most likely. When run out of fuel, the plane went to an emergency landing in the Pacific waters, which ended with his death, along with the brave crew. This tragic outcome flight occurred in an area not hit the prospecting area. Splashdown plane Amelia Earhart ocean could have two outcomes. The first - a plane just fell apart during a hard landing on the water, the pilots at the same time killed instantly, or slipping is already on the surface of the ocean, the plane could simply "bury" in the incoming wave and skapotirovat (roll over the front part of the fuselage), buried under its ruins crew. Carrying out an emergency landing on the surface of the ocean, Earhart was in extremely tired, emotionally keyed state, so the risks of errors in the management of aircraft were maximal; Flight in her practice was not the case and, therefore, experience, ditching the aircraft. In addition, the fuel ran out and stopped the engines, so adjust the glide path, and maneuver before touching the water surface was not possible. At the end of the second - a successful splashdown - pilots and the aircraft became "toys" for the waves and found themselves held hostage by the ocean; as well as find their rescuers did not succeed, then tired of waiting for the ocean and engulfed the plane and its crew. And is now the backbone of warped "Lockheed Electra 10-E" is not known where, at great depth, on muddy or rocky bottom and covered perhaps algae, which became for the aircraft and its pilots evergreen wreath mourning. 


August 22, 1931. Unsuccessful flight across the Atlantic Ocean by plane JUNKERSW 33 "ESA" [37], [38].


October 16, 1956. Landing Boeing 377 at the Pacific Ocean. [36]

       Fortunately, both splashdown safely ended, people were saved.


Where there could be aircraft landing in the ocean Earhart (author's version).


       Over 200 nautical miles from the island Howland navigator was determined his line item "157 - 337". When the aircraft speed of 140 knots, which is trying to maintain Earhart instrument, "Lockheed Electra" had to go out on the line through the 74 minutes. Noonan from the cockpit of the aircraft moved to the interior, where the chart table was located. According to a built in desk two chronometers he watched the time, waiting for the specified minutes have elapsed.
       None of the crew members did not know that due to the curvature of the Pitot tubes, signs "lied" rate, and in fact the plane is flying at a higher rate. Assume speed was 160 knots. Then after 65 minutes the plane reaches the line position of the island, but due to navigational errors, and wind drift plane is on its south Howland Island, a distance of more than 20 miles from the island. Clocks at the time showed a time of 64.7 minutes, and the navigator had to wait another 9.3 minutes to announce the release of the Earhart Howland. 9.3 minutes the plane continued to fly further away from the east of the island. When the chronometer showed that 74 minute came, Noonan pilot hastened to inform, that they came to the line item "157 - 337". Island Earhart did not see, but she could not see him. Over the past nine and three-tenths of a minute at a speed of 160 knots the aircraft was at a distance of 28.5 nautical miles (52.78 km) from Howland, and for weather reports in the July morning visibility in the area of ​​the island and its surrounding areas is not more than 20 nautical miles (37.04 km). For this reason, the crew «Itaska» also could not see or hear the plane roar of its engines. Thus, a distance of twenty-eight and a half miles was enough to aircraft and crew were lost forever in the ocean. The people who controlled flight on the route Lae Island - Howland Island, the assumption that the "Lockheed Electra" could prove to be to the east of the island, not even occurred, so the search operation carried out there.
       What happened on board the aircraft after get into a fuss Earhart said that she did not see the island, and ends with fuel? Amelia was able to calm down a little, to analyze the situation and convince yourself that the plane still went on line Howland position, but it turned out to be to the south due to the demolition of the counter-east south wind. Therefore pilot sent a plane for "157 - 337" line to the north, in the hope of finding an island there. However, flying a considerable distance, and not finding it, having spent thus a large amount of fuel pilot panicked again, he turned the plane 180 degrees and moved through the position of "157 - 337" in reverse, heading south, about what, and said in his last telegram . And shortly after sending a message out of fuel, and the crew went to an emergency landing in the Pacific Ocean.


Schematic representation of the flight path "Lockheed Electra"
  At the final stage of the route. Lae - about. Howland.

Oddities in providing radio plane Amelia Earhart.

               In the first round the world flight attempt to commit under the fuselage of the plane Amelia Earhart are parallel to two straight lines, cable type antenna.


Amelia Earhart and her plane before the first attempt of flight [26]
shows two antennas (shown), enshrined in the pitot tubes.

      After making the first stopover in Honolulu, aircraft engines require service, is to eliminate the jamming in the mechanism of the angular position of propeller blades during flight. To this end, the plane flew to a military base Ford Island, not far from the island of Honolulu. After a fault, the early morning of March 20, 1937 at the time of take-off from the island of Ford aircraft suffered a serious car accident and was sent for refurbishment.


Day after morning crash [27] (in the accident Pitot tube bent and lower the antenna broke off).

        A month later, the plane was ready to commit a second attempt the circumnavigation flight. However, the repaired plane, under its fuselage was installed, only one antenna is lower, starboard. The decrease was due to the lower number of antennas to one, it is difficult to understand and explain. In technical terms, their installation is not difficult. First in June 1937 "Lockheed Electra" was launched from Miami with a lower antenna permanently leaving the United States. The first intermediate landing was scheduled for Puerto Rico.


Puerto Rico, San Juan, June 2, 1937. Noonan is already on the plane, in the "Lockheed Electra" sits Earhart. (Bettman / CORBIS) [28] (for clarity, the antenna is selected, and the location of its attachment is indicated).

The fact that the absence of a second antenna affects the reliability of the radio during the second attempt the circumnavigation flight, already there is no doubt today. And if we assume that the aircraft during take-off from the island of Lae, at least part of the bottom of the antenna can be torn off and is lost, the radio instability increased even more.


Determination of the height of the bumps, allegedly corrupted the Earhart plane according to TIGHAR.

Having examined the photos of Earhart and Noonan, located near the plane on which they flew, it was selected three images [31], [15], [39], of which, on the basis of descriptiveness test, two left - [31] and [15 ]. In the first photo [31] Fred Noonan and Amelia Earhart about aircraft "Lockheed Electra" at the airport of the city Everett (Everett), USA. In the second photo [15] Amelia Earhart with your plane at the airport of the city of Natal (Brazil), June 6, 1937. Peering closely at the photos, you can make a clear conclusion - during shooting Earhart leaned back against the fuselage of the aircraft, and therefore, its growth has been distorted. However, the result of the analysis of this distortion growth lёtchitsy no effect. It is reliably known and based on his knowledge of technique analysis below. Analysis of the photos is certainly indicative.

The method of analysis.

Growth of Amelia Earhart was 1.70 meters. Using the value of its growth, tibia length pilot was determined. According to [22] tibia length is 21% - 23% of the human growth, and for the purpose of this analysis it was assumed equal to the length of 0,374 m (22%). In accordance with [23] was determined the height of the foot pilot which amounted to 0.0612 meters (foot height is 9% of the entire length of the leg and foot length is 40% of human growth). At Amelia's feet footwear outsole which has a small thickness, so as not to difficult to manage aircraft pedals. In the absence of data on the model shoe sole author took thickness of 0.01 meters. Determined, therefore, of interest to the size of their correlated with the image of Amelia Earhart in the photos.


Photo number 1 [31].




Photo number 2 [15]


The analysis result.

The distance from the lower end of the bracket to the surface of the airfield was equal to 0.5 meters (20 inches), which exceeded the value specified in [15] by 0.10 meters (4 inches). Accordingly, to break off the bottom of the antenna holder of the aircraft, the bumps should be at the height of 0.5 meters (20 inches).

Conclusion.

The presence of roughness height of 0.4 - 0.5 meters (16 - 20 inches) on the airfield Lae airport on the day of departure the plane Amelia Earhart is highly questionable. The responsibilities of the aerodrome operational service in Lae included tracking evenness airfield and elimination of defects detected on it. For example, in the Russian Federation, in accordance with the "REGA RF - 94" [24], operation of the aerodrome primed with irregularities in height, even substantially less than the above mentioned, is forbidden to remove them.

Conclusion.

If the deformation of Pitot tubes and break the antenna actually have taken place, they are the first prerequisites for predetermining the tragic fate of the aircraft and crew. Incorrect information about the speed of the aircraft led to errors in the calculation of its rate and unstable radio communication due to the loss of the antenna, made it difficult for course correction. Twice Earhart requested to enter the radio bearing Howland Island, but confirmation of its receipt from the aircraft and have not followed [34].
Today the firm belief that there was a loss of the antenna, no. Stories about the discovery of the antenna after the departure of the aircraft Amelia Earhart can be trusted, can not believe it - that material evidence is not available. Also, there are no documented testimonies of persons involved in the story of the discovery of the antenna pieces. In 2001, by PHOTEK INK. TIGHAR addressed, it was reported that the film not clearly visible frames, the estimated curvature Pitot tube can be an optical illusion. [13]
Oral stories about the discovery of the old-timers of the antenna pieces have become the dominant factor for some experts in their search for the causes of the dusty cloud in the film frames. As expected in this case, the experts came to the logical conclusion that it was cut short antenna is formed. However, the author can name another, very real, the cause of the mysterious cloud. During the dispersal of aircraft lёtchitsa afraid that the runway may not be enough for the take-off of the machine overloaded with fuel, and then she added sharply engine speeds, which manifested itself externally in raising dust air masses, propellers thrown when a sharp increase in the thrust of the aircraft engines.
What really happened during takeoff "Lockheed Electra" with Lae island still remains a mystery, perhaps forever flown away in that distant morning in July, along with Amelia Earhart. Closer to its unraveling will be possible only when we find the aircraft or its wreckage, and that, perhaps, help to dispel the cloud of dusty, was captured newsreel. But for this you need to know the coordinates of the plane crash site. And they are known at the moment, and quite accurately - is unknown.



REFERENCES


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© Vasily Vladimirovich Sapozhnikov
Snezhinsk

15/12/2015 - 24/08/2016.