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Monday, August 13, 2018
Sunday, August 12, 2018
Saturday, August 11, 2018
On December 1, 1934, Sergei Kirov, First Secretary of the Leningrad Provincial (Regional) and Leningrad City Committees of the All-Russian Communist Party of the Bolsheviks, drove up to the main entrance to Smolny's building, accompanied by guards at five o'clock in the afternoon.
Smolny, the main entrance to the building, 1934  (the arrow indicates the direction by which Kirov drove up on that fateful day).
Smolny, an automobile road to the main entrance to the building (modern photography) .
Coming out of the car, Kirov and several security guards entered the main entrance, where he was met by security guard Mikhail Borisov. Borisov's job was to accompany Kirov in all his movements around the Smolny building, including the working office on the third floor.
Kirov went to the end of the central corridor of the third floor and turned left into a small corridor, at the end of which was his office. Borisov did not manage to get to this turn when he heard the shots. The leader of the Communists of Leningrad was killed, and the perpetrator of the attempted Leonid Nikolayev was detained at the scene of the crime.
Sergei Kirov . Leonid Nikolaev .
The investigation began. Unfortunately, the documents of this investigation file, in their majority, remain classified so far, and for this reason access to them by historians, and even more so by independent researchers of Kirov's murder, is practically impossible. This is an insurmountable obstacle for finding out all the circumstances of the committed crime and for establishing the true motive for the physical destruction of Kirov. The memoirs of the participants of those tragic events, the testimony of Nikolayev and other witnesses of the incident, and the results of the investigation into the killing of Kirov published by Soviet, Russian and foreign researchers, published at various times in the media, contain inaccuracies and contradictions, which make it difficult to determine the cause-effect relationship and the overall picture attempt. The author analyzed an accessible vast array of information on the principles of reliability and, especially, on the establishment of the logical compatibility of all the events of that fateful day of the murder. There are reasons to assert that there really was a well-conspiratorial group of people interested in eliminating Kirov, and for this they had serious reasons.
Place of incident - Smolny.
Before the October Revolution of 1917, this building was called the Smolny Institute of Noble Maidens; during and after the revolution it received the name Smolny. This building was built according to the project of the Italian architect Giacomo Quarenghi in 1806-1808.
The Smolny Institute building project. The main facade and the plan of the first floor. Completed by J. Quarenghi .
On the plan of the first floor, the central corridor and the left small corridor can be clearly seen. Based on the general concept of building the building, the corridor layout on the second and third floors of the building were identical to the layout of the ground floor. Therefore, to determine the length of corridors on the third floor, when Kirov moved on them towards his death, you can use the first floor plan. If you carefully study the architect's project, you can see that there are two lines between the facade and the ground floor plan, which undoubtedly reflect the scale of the image. But in what units are they represented?
Scale lines (enlarged).
When creating various projects of buildings, including the Smolny Institute, J. Quarenghi used the unit of measurement for the length of the toilets, commonly used at the beginning of the nineteenth century, sometimes in addition - the Parisian foot , . Suppose that the upper scale line has a grading in the toilets. One toilet is equal to six Parisian feet . If you multiply by six digits 20 and 40, indicated on the upper scale line, then on the bottom scale line, these numbers will correspond to the numbers 120 and 240. Consequently, the lower scale line is represented in Parisian feet. In addition, the proof of the correctness of the proposed assumption on the use of J. Quarenghi of two scales in the presented project of the Smolny Institute is their almost complete coincidence in the metric system of measuring length. Indeed, one toilet is 1.946 meters ; one Parisian foot - 0.325 meters , and six such feet - 1.95 meters.
Now using the upper scale line, the usual ruler or compasses, and by recalculating from toilets into meters, determine the length of the corridor from the center of the main entrance to Smolny, where Kirov entered, before turning left into a small corridor. In the same way, we determine the length of the small corridor that led to his private office. Their length was 89 and 45 meters, respectively.
The speed of a person's movement at a calm pace at the age of Kirov (48 years) is an average of 5 kilometers per hour . Knowing the growth of Kirov (168 centimeters), you can determine the length of its step . It was 0.697 meters. By the simplest mathematical calculations, you can determine that the distance of 89 meters Kirov passed in 1.07 minutes. The experiment, conducted by the author at a measured distance with a stopwatch in his hand, confirmed the calculated result.
The meeting place of Kirov and Nikolaev.
According to Nikolayev, when he left the toilet door on the third floor, he turned left, that is, in the direction of the exit from the building. After making two steps and seeing the Kirov coming towards him, he stopped, then turned his face to the right wall of the corridor.  With the growth of Nikolayev 150 centimeters, the length of his step was 0.622 meters , and, consequently, Nikolayev, stood at a distance of 1.244 meters after leaving the toilet. To clarify the circumstances of the assassination, it is very important to know where the toilets were located in the Smolny building, because it was there that the starting point from which Nikolaev went to kill Kirov.
During the design and construction of the Smolny Institute noble maidens sewage systems were not. J. Quarenghi solved this problem in a simple way. On the reverse side of the main facade were built two special outbuildings-latrines (toilets) in the form of protruding towers .
Extension lavatories for the project J. Quarenghi.
These outbuildings-latrines were separated from the main building by a tambour with through ventilation. Two more staircases served for communication between the floors, which means that the toilet rooms were on all three floors of the building, and a communication link was established between them . Significantly later, appropriate sewage and plumbing work was carried out, but within the framework of the then existing architectural composition of the historic structure.
The rear facade of the Smolny building. A view of the outhouse extension. (modern photography) .
Considering the foregoing and taking advantage of the large-scale plan of the first floor, it can be determined that the toilet from which Nikolaev came out was about 35 meters away from the turn to the left corridor. Nikolaev, when he saw Kirov, stopped, being at a distance of 36.244 meters from this turn. At this point, the killer and his victim met with each other, but Kirov proceeded further, not paying attention to Nikolayev turned away to the wall .
Security guard Borisov told during the interrogation on December 1 that he was moving after Kirov at a distance of 20-30 steps and tried to maintain this distance, because Kirov was irritated by the close presence of the guards behind him . To ensure that the escort distance was unchanged the length of the guard's step should be equal to the length of the step of Kirov, that is 0.697 meters. Based on this, it can be determined that the maximum distance (30 steps) was 20.91 meters.
The meeting place of S. Kirov with L. Nikolayev.
Nikolaev Kirov Borisov
Could Borisov see Nikolaev, who followed Kirov with an accelerated step? Certainly, and without a doubt, I saw. Only an absolutely blind person would not have noticed the murderer, and it is quite obvious that if Borisov had the visual acuity of a mole, he would not have been entrusted with protecting the main party leader of the city of Leningrad.
How Nikolaev went to the Smolny.
To visit the Smolny in 1934, it was necessary to have either a special pass that was kept by all the permanent employees of this organization and the guards knew these people in person and practically missed them without presenting the relevant document or the visitor had to present a party ticket. At Nikolayev he was. Found in the pocket of his coat after the assassination attempt; on it and established the identity of the murderer .
It is quite logical that in order to ensure the safety of life of the higher officials of the Smolny, in 1934 there already existed a corresponding instruction for registering visitors to this institution. In accordance with it, when a person presented a ticket to a member of the Bolshevik party, the responsible person of the commandant's office (on duty on every floor of this building) had to write down information in a special book of attendance records for Smolny. It recorded the following data: the number and date of issuance of the party ticket, the last name, first name and patronymic of the visitor, and also to whom the responsible person of Smolny is sent and for what purpose. In addition, the time of the beginning of the visit and the time of departure from the building of this party member were recorded. It is not known until now where the books of visitors to Smolny with the entries from December 1, 1934 are located. Perhaps they are kept in secret archives of the investigation case to investigate the circumstances of the assassination, but most likely they were not at all attached to the case of the murder of Kirov and, subsequently, were destroyed in connection with the expiration of their storage. Nevertheless, information about the time of visit to Nikolaev Smolny can be found in the record of his interrogation from the third of December 1934 .
Indications of Nikolaev.
During the interrogation on December 3, Nikolaev said that he had appeared in Smolny at about 13.30 hours Leningrad time, then he left this building at 14.30. During this hour, he tried to get an invitation ticket to the session of the communist activists of the city of Leningrad, which was to take place at the Uritsky Palace (former Tavrichesky Palace) on December 1 at 6:00 pm Leningrad time. In the newspapers of the city, relevant information was published in advance about this meeting, in which, in particular, it was reported that Kirov would be the keynote speaker. Nikolayev needed to get an invitation ticket to this meeting, so that it was there, during the report of Kirov, to commit his murder, and then, in front of all present, commit an act of suicide. However, Nikolaev could not get such a document and, leaving the Smolny, he, according to him, decided to take a walk . Strikingly strange statement, given the fact that on December 1, 1934, there was cold weather in Leningrad. This circumstance had absolutely no place for a walk, beginning at 2:30 pm after Nikolayev's departure from Smolny and until his reappearance in this building on the eve of the murder (Kirov was killed at 4:30 pm). During this period (almost two hours), it was possible to thoroughly freeze. And how in such a state it was possible to produce an impeccably accurate and deadly shot at Kirov's head by pressing on the tight trigger of the weapon (lack of a revolver Nagan ) cold from the index finger of the right hand (the force of pressing the hook to produce a shot from " Nagana "is three and a half kilograms ). It is quite obvious that Leonid Nikolaev, who did not have time to warm up by the time of the assassination attempt, would not even go to the moon. Therefore, it can be argued that he did not walk in the frost in the vicinity of Smolny, but was somewhere near this building, in a warm room, namely, in the apartment from which the perpetrator of the assassination attempted to kill Kirov, and this was the conspiratorial apartment of the conspirators.
At a safe house.
Leonid Nikolaev informed the organizers of the murder that he could not get an invitation ticket to the Uritsky Palace where the liquidation of Kirov was planned, which meant the failure of a carefully designed terrorist action. All participants in the conspiracy were in great confusion, and the nervousness that arose in them did not allow them to make an adequate decision. And all of a sudden, around 4:00 pm Leningrad time, this apartment was telephoned twice. The first call was from the chauffeur Kirov; the second call is from one of his guards. They, of course, were informants of the NKVD, and, most likely, employees of this organization. According to the instructions that existed for them at that time, they had to report all the movements of the important subject they protected. Informants on the phone reported that Kirov suddenly decided to go to Smolny and will be there, about 16 hours and 30 minutes. Nikolaev was immediately sent to Smolny to kill Kirov there, reminding him of the need to commit, regardless of the outcome of the attempt, an act of suicide. Obviously, the mandatory self-liquidation of the assailant broke off all his connections with the terrorist group and, thereby, allowed all the conspirators to avoid exposure.
After the departure of Nikolayev, the conspirators called the security guard Borisov, who was their agent. It is documented that he was an employee of the GPU (NKVD) since 1924 . He was informed that in a few minutes Nikolayev would appear in Smolny, and later Kirov would arrive. Borisov was ordered in any way to provide conditions for the implementation of the terrorist act, which will be carried out by the famous Nikolayev. After this warning, the guard, in accordance with the job description, went to the main entrance to Smolny, where he waited and met Kirov, and later accompanied him along this building.
Reconstruction of the circumstances of the murder.
Kirov passed by Nikolayev, facing the right wall of the central corridor on the third floor of Smolny near the entrance to the toilet . After that, the future murderer turned around and followed the party official with a quick step, gradually reducing the distance between them. Borisov, who received orders not to interfere with Nikolaev's actions, began to slow down his movement. He perfectly saw how Kirov and Nikolaev turned into the left small corridor. Borisov, having not reached two or three steps before this turn , deliberately stopped. He expected two shots in this place, as he had been warned in advance: the first shot meant an attempt on Kirov, the second shot - the suicide of Nikolayev. After the second shot, Borisov ran into the left corridor, holding a personal weapon in his hand, but then stopped suddenly, because the doors of the offices of the employees of the third floor of the Smolny began to open, people who heard the shots began to leave.  And when Borisov, who was dumbfounded, saw that Nikolayev was still alive, he was seized by a panicky feeling of fear that quickly turned into a severe depression. She was visibly displayed by the guard after his detention and until his sudden death under mysterious circumstances on the second day after the assassination attempt on Kirov when Borisova was escorted in the open truck to talk with Stalin, who arrived from Moscow to Leningrad by night train a few hours after the murder [ 11], .
Kirov's body lay on the Smolny's floor in a position "on his chest" with no signs of life. At a distance of about one meter from his legs in the opposite direction lay the body of Nikolayev in the position "on his back," as it later turned out, the killer was at that time in unconsciousness . It can be argued that Kirov walked along the left wall of the small corridor, because the entrance to his private office was just on this side. Moving to the office in the center or on the right side of the corridor, he would not, because it contradicts the common sense of any adequate person. In addition, the shot Kirov was found near the door leading to the meeting room, which was located exactly on the left side of the small corridor. In this hall, various meetings were held for party and economic workers of the city of Leningrad. On that fateful day, at 1400 hours Leningrad time, a meeting was held by the second secretary of the Leningrad Party organization . If you take advantage of the scale of the plan for the first floor of the Smolny and make calculations, Kirov, when he was overtaken by the bullet of the murderer, was 22.5 meters away after turning to the left corridor, just opposite the front door to this meeting room. According to the testimony of employees of the third floor of Smolny, the body of the murdered man was located on the floor in a position towards the location of his private office, parallel to the left side of the corridor. From the reminiscences of the participant of those tragic events of Mikhail Roslyakov, it follows that after the shots he heard, he unhindered the door of the conference hall towards the space of the small corridor . The width of this door was standard - 0.8 meters. The first thing Roslyakov saw when he opened the door was the legs of an unknown person, and only when he went into the small corridor did he recognize in the man lying on the floor Kirov, and about a meter from him (3/4 meters) in the opposite direction found the body an unknown man (it was Nikolayev). Other people in the corridor Roslyakov was not seen . The last circumstance is confirmed by Nikolaev's testimony: "during the shots in the corridor, there was no one" . Then where was the guard Borisov?
As was established above, Kirov's body was located in a small corridor at a distance of 22.5 meters from a turn into it, and Borisov, according to him, went after the party boss at a distance of 20.91 meters. Consequently, during the assassination attempt, the guard had to be in this corridor at a distance of 1.59 meters after the turn and he had to see the murder. However, Borisov was not there, which is confirmed by his words during the interrogation: "I heard the first shot, not reaching two or three steps before the turn" . The author found an unambiguous explanation for this fact. Borisov, at a distance of two or three steps before the turn, deliberately stopped there, in order to take control of the situation in the central corridor of Smolny, thus covering Nikolayev. For this reason, Borisov was not in the left corridor during the assassination of Kirov. His actions clearly indicate the involvement in the crime, and the best confirmation of this is the liquidation of the guard on the second day after the assassination attempt during a specially organized car crash. The driver of the car that got into an accident, 20 years after that event, said that immediately after the traffic accident, one of the two NKVD officers accompanying Borisov struck him on the head with a piece similar to a metal bar. The second NKVD officer finished off Borisov. All three participants in the incident were detained, but on the same day, on instructions from the leaders of the Leningrad NKVD organs, they were released , and Borisov's death was officially classified as an accident that occurred as a result of a car accident. 
From the protocol of the pathological anatomical study of Kirov's wound , it is possible to reconstruct the details of the murder. Firstly, the wound was "blind", that is, the bullet entered the occipital part of the skull and stopped there, causing serious brain damage incompatible with life. Kirov died instantly. Secondly, the bullet, having entered the head of Kirov, collided on the flight with the bone tissue of the left frontal part of the skull of Kirov, but could not break through due to the loss of its kinetic energy, however, weakened the strength of the bone. Therefore, from the fall on the hard floor of the Smolny in the cranium of the murdered, cracks formed that spread from the frontal part of the head towards the back of the occipital part, and a bruise formed on the forehead. Medical examination found that the impact of the head on a hard surface of the floor bullet changed its position in the wound. It unfolded in the wound channel by 180 °, and, sliding back along it, blocked the entrance bullet hole, in connection with which, prevented excessive flow of blood from the wound. That's why no bloody traces were found at the site of Kirov's assassination. And it is quite logical that the frightened employees of Smolny, not seeing the blood, came to the conclusion that the first secretary of the party organization of the city of Leningrad is alive, he is just concussed and lost consciousness. They carried the body from the crime scene to Kirov's private office, where he was given first aid by Smolny's medical personnel. Several people who remained with Nikolayev's body brought him to life and took him from the murder to one of the offices of the third floor of the building, ensuring his protection until the arrival of representatives of the NKVD. When the employees of this organization arrived, there were no traces on the scene of the crime. It is for this reason that there is no scheme for the place of Kirov's murder, and it is pointless to look for it in the secret archives of the investigative case. Representatives of the NKVD were given a revolver "Nagan", found at the scene of the crime, the documents of the detainee and actually Nikolaev, who is at that moment in a complete stupor, that is, in a deranged state. Third, the bullet entered the back of Kirov's neck from the bottom up. The growth of Kirov 168 centimeters, the growth of Nikolayev 150 centimeters. This indicates that Nikolayev was shooting. And the last fourth conclusion. The bullet entered the occipital part of the Kirov skull in the rear from right to left at an angle of about 30 ° in a horizontal projection. And this proves that at the moment of the shot Nikolayev was in relation to Kirov behind him and to the right of him towards the center of the small corridor.
The classic position of the shooter to produce an accurate shot from a revolver or a pistol in a standing position .
A production fragment from the TV program "The Case is Dark." "Diary of the murderer of Kirov" .
After shooting in Kirov, and seeing that he fell, Nikolayev, according to his testimony during interrogation , turned to see that there was no threat of attack from his back. At the same time, he cocked the revolver to commit suicide. From these indications, the following conclusions can be drawn. First, the platoon of the revolver trigger proves incontrovertibly that the assailant had a revolver "Nagan" in the execution of the "soldier variant". In this execution of the weapon, the shooter, in order to make another shot, had to cock the revolver each time; when the trigger was cocked, a synchronous rotation of the drum with cartridges took place, and a new combat charge was placed opposite the barrel of the revolver , . Secondly, after killing Kirov, Nikolayev stopped and remained in the position of the shot for several seconds, which allowed him to visually assess the situation on the left side of the corridor of the third floor of Smolny, but absolutely excluded the control of the situation behind him, that is, on the right side of this corridor. Therefore, after the shot, Nikolaev was forced to turn right exactly to the right by turning the body of his body by about 90 ° - 100 ° without leaving the shot production site. Turning, Nikolayev unexpectedly saw a man in the uniform of an NKVD officer who opened the door of his office, which was on the right side of the corridor just opposite the murderer. The identity of the servant of Smolny, who saw Nikolaev after the first shot, was established; there are his testimonies . Both were frightened. An officer in the uniform of the NKVD, seeing a man with a revolver in his hand, quickly closed the door of his office with fear. Nikolaev, who was in a stressful state after the assassination, hastily tried to shoot himself, but missed. Stunned by the sound of a shot that sounded near his head, the killer fainted. In this state he was found by employees of the third floor of Smolny. The bullet of the second shot was subsequently found in the left wall of the corridor near the ceiling ceiling near the entrance to the meeting room. Examination of the bullets extracted from the skull of Kirov and from the corridor wall proved that they were fired from the same weapon found at the scene of the crime.
Nikolaev, Kirov, Borisov, Roslyakov, an employee in the form of the NKVD
The general plan of the scene, restored by the author.
The conditional scheme of the murder site of Kirov, restored by the author.
The reason for killing Kirov.
In January 1926, Kirov was sent by Stalin to party work in the city of Leningrad. Of course, Kirov before his departure met with the Leader of the Land of Soviets. The conversation between them was strictly confidential. Stalin warned his plenipotentiary representative that the political situation in the city of the two revolutions is very complex, the opposition created by the head of the Leningrad Soviet, Grigory Zinoviev , is sufficiently active and not completely undisclosed. Therefore, one of the important tasks set by Stalin before Kirov was neutralization of the activities of this organization; even discussed the possibility of contacting its representatives in order to learn the plans of the conspirators.
Kirov, who arrived in Leningrad, was met with distrust and even hostility by the leaders of certain party and economic structures of the city, as well as by the leading workers of the GPU bodies (subsequently the NKVD) . But workers of large industrial Leningrad enterprises supported him. The popularity of Kirov among the working people grew steadily, and that is why the opposition was forced to seek ways of rapprochement with the first party secretary in the hope of attracting him to his side, and Kirov managed to gain confidence from her representatives. This is confirmed by the following fact. After the next day of the meeting of the Seventeenth Congress of the Communist Party, held in Moscow in January 1934, late in the evening a group of oppositionists planned to remove Stalin from power in the apartment of a well-known party worker (Sergo Ordzhonikidze ); among those present there was Kirov . After the end of this meeting, he informed Stalin of everything by phone from his Moscow apartment. Kirov did not suspect that his phone was tapped at the direction of Heinrich Yagoda, who at that time occupied a high leadership position in the OGPU, and who was in contact with opposition structures. , . It was in this way that the opposition learned that Kirov was a Stalinist agent who had infiltrated their organization. It is quite obvious that its leaders issued him a death sentence, the preparation and execution of which required time.
There is one more argument proving that Kirov was an agent of Stalin. Delegates of the Leningrad party organization, headed by Zinoviev, openly opposed Stalin at the Fourteenth Congress of the Communist Party, held in Moscow in December 1925. Immediately after the congress in January 1926, Zinoviev was released from the leadership of the Lensovet and from other senior posts, and then was subjected to political persecution and was subsequently shot. Now let us analyze the analogous situation that was realized at the Seventeenth Congress of the Communist Party, which also took place in Moscow, but in January 1934. The delegates of the Leningrad party organization, headed by Kirov, also opposed Stalin, but after the congress Kirov returned to the city of Leningrad without any negative consequences for his career and continued party work. This means that Kirov was absolutely devoted to Stalin. The leader of the Land of Soviets was aware of this and was not interested in his murder, because Kirov coped well with the duties of a secret agent in the opposition structures, and could bring a lot of benefits to Stalin in his struggle for power. Why kill a chicken carrying golden eggs.
Leaders of the opposition instructed to destroy Kirov to the NKVD structures of the city of Leningrad. This is completely logical. They were the ones who protected the first party secretary, thus controlling all his actions, actions and movements in the city of Leningrad and the Leningrad region. It remained only to find the direct executor of the terrorist action, and he was found. He was a member of the Bolshevik Party Leonid Nikolaev, dissatisfied with his career and material well-being, besides, he lost party work in 1934 because of his unbalanced nature. Nikolaev's wife (Milda Draule), during an interrogation on December 1, 1934, reported that her husband was a neurasthenic .
Milda Draule. .
Stalin was not involved in the murder of Kirov. The opposition, organized by Grigory Zinoviev, who opposed the Stalinist regime, and, perhaps, is justified, organized the attempt on it. Learning that Kirov was an agent of Stalin in the ranks of the opposition organization, its leaders took an absolutely obvious and absolutely fair decision to eliminate the traitor, which was carried out.
Exposing one falsification.
In the museum named after SM. Kirov in the city of St. Petersburg (the former city of Leningrad) on display a cap, which, according to the guides, belonged to Kirov and was on his head during the assassination attempt.
Photo No. 1 .
Фотография № 2 .
© Vasily Vladimirovich Sapozhnikov
01 November 2017 - 11 August 2018 http://ourpasttime.blogspot.com/p/blog-page_11.html
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